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Penile Tissue Engineering: a Review of the Current Progress of Penile Reconstruction

UCL Division of Surgery & Interventional Science, Royal Free Hospital, Pond Street, London, NW3 2QG, UK

Special Issues: Mesenchymal Stem Cells

Penile cancer, congenital abnormalities, trauma, animal bite, iatrogenic injuries, severe erectile dysfunction can lead to loss of normal penile function that needs penile reconstruction. However, success of penile reconstruction is limited by scarcity of native penile tissue and tissue complexity. Several methods of phalloplasty exist, yet none of these approaches is able to recreate a fully functional physiological penis. Applying a tissue engineering approach provides the possibility of overcoming this problem. However, the penis is a complex organ with several tissue types, each with a specific structure and function. Imitating this native architecture is difficult, making penile tissue engineering very challenging. Several cell types have been investigated for corporal regeneration and restoring adequate erectile function. Researchers have showed successful differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into smooth muscle and endothelial cells after transplanting them into rat cavernosum in vivo. Their plasticity, ease of accessibility and characteristic reproducibility makes MSCs an attractive option for therapeutic regeneration of penile cavernosal tissue. We discuss the use of stem cells in penile tissue engineering, the challenges and future direction of penile reconstruction.
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Keywords penile reconstruction; penile tissue engineering; tissue engineering; stem cells; mesenchymal stem cells; corpus cavernosum; cavernosal tissue

Citation: Kiran Dhaliwal, Muhammad Junejo. Penile Tissue Engineering: a Review of the Current Progress of Penile Reconstruction. AIMS Cell and Tissue Engineering, 2017, 1(3): 180-190. doi: 10.3934/celltissue.2017.3.180

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Copyright Info: 2017, Kiran Dhaliwal, et al., licensee AIMS Press. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licese (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0)

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