Research article Special Issues

Numerical groundwater modelling for studying surface water-groundwater interaction and impact of reduced draft on groundwater resources in central Ganga basin


  • Received: 01 June 2022 Revised: 16 July 2022 Accepted: 26 July 2022 Published: 03 August 2022
  • Water resources in India's Indo-Gangetic plains are over-exploited and vulnerable to impacts of climate change. The unequal spatial and temporal variation of meteorological, hydrological and hydrogeological parameters has created additional challenges for field engineers and policy planners. The groundwater and surface water are extensively utilized in the middle Gangetic plain for agriculture. The primary purpose of this study is to understand the discharge and recharge processes of groundwater system using trend analysis, and surface water and groundwater interaction using groundwater modelling. A comprehensive hydrological, and hydrogeological data analysis was carried out and a numerical groundwater model was developed for Bhojpur district, Bihar, India covering 2395 km2 geographical area, located in central Ganga basin. The groundwater level data analyses for the year 2018 revealed that depth to water level varies from 3.0 to 9.0 meter below ground level (m bgl) in the study area. The M-K test showed no significant declining trend in the groundwater level in the study area. The groundwater modelling results revealed that groundwater head is higher in the southern part of the district and the groundwater flow direction is from south-west to north-east. The groundwater head fluctuation between the monsoon and the summer seasons was observed to be 2 m, it is also witnessed that groundwater is contributing more to rivers in the monsoon season in comparison with other seasons. Impact of reduction in pumping on groundwater heads was also investigated, considering a 10% reduction in groundwater withdrawal. The results indicated an overall head rise of 2 m in the southern part and 0.2–0.5 m in the middle and northern part of the district.

    Citation: Sumant Kumar, Anuj Kumar Dwivedi, Chandra Shekhar Prasad Ojha, Vinod Kumar, Apourv Pant, P. K. Mishra, Nitesh Patidar, Surjeet Singh, Archana Sarkar, Sreekanth Janardhanan, C. P. Kumar, Mohammed Mainuddin. Numerical groundwater modelling for studying surface water-groundwater interaction and impact of reduced draft on groundwater resources in central Ganga basin[J]. Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering, 2022, 19(11): 11114-11136. doi: 10.3934/mbe.2022518

    Related Papers:

  • Water resources in India's Indo-Gangetic plains are over-exploited and vulnerable to impacts of climate change. The unequal spatial and temporal variation of meteorological, hydrological and hydrogeological parameters has created additional challenges for field engineers and policy planners. The groundwater and surface water are extensively utilized in the middle Gangetic plain for agriculture. The primary purpose of this study is to understand the discharge and recharge processes of groundwater system using trend analysis, and surface water and groundwater interaction using groundwater modelling. A comprehensive hydrological, and hydrogeological data analysis was carried out and a numerical groundwater model was developed for Bhojpur district, Bihar, India covering 2395 km2 geographical area, located in central Ganga basin. The groundwater level data analyses for the year 2018 revealed that depth to water level varies from 3.0 to 9.0 meter below ground level (m bgl) in the study area. The M-K test showed no significant declining trend in the groundwater level in the study area. The groundwater modelling results revealed that groundwater head is higher in the southern part of the district and the groundwater flow direction is from south-west to north-east. The groundwater head fluctuation between the monsoon and the summer seasons was observed to be 2 m, it is also witnessed that groundwater is contributing more to rivers in the monsoon season in comparison with other seasons. Impact of reduction in pumping on groundwater heads was also investigated, considering a 10% reduction in groundwater withdrawal. The results indicated an overall head rise of 2 m in the southern part and 0.2–0.5 m in the middle and northern part of the district.



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