Research article

Lead, zinc and copper fine powder with controlled size and shape

  • Received: 01 August 2017 Accepted: 07 November 2017 Published: 14 December 2017
  • This study describes the preparation of lead, zinc and copper powders by hydrometallurgy from secondary resources. Chloride, sulphate and acetate salts of zinc, copper and lead were prepared. The powders were prepared by reducing the ionic species of these metals by hydrazine hydrate or ascorbic acid. The effect of addition of some water soluble polar organic solvents to the aqueous salt solutions on the morphology and particle size of the prepared powder was studied. Findings were explained on the basis of the transition state theory and according to the Hughes and Ingold’s rule. Aqueous solutions alone produce metal powder having different size and irregular shape. The presence of polar organic solvents with high molecular weight and polarity produce powders having controlled size and regular morphology. The reason was because solvent polarity enhances the rate of red-ox reactions between metal ions and the reducing agent. The mean particle size of the powder was 60 um with zinc, 80 um with copper, and 90 um with lead. The extent of productivity was ≥98%. Results highlighted that the chemical reduction of the ionic species took place in a sequence steps. The first is a diffusion of the reactants across a boundary layer established at the polar site of the organic solvent molecules. The next step is the direct contact of the reactants. The third step involved reduction to yield powder. The last is the backward diffusion of the powder outside the boundary layer. Results showed that addition of water-miscible solvents having high dielectric constant increased the polarity of the medium. This energizes and enhances the one or more t step of the model to be more rapid to yield particles with small size and symmetrical shape.

    Citation: Mahmoud A Rabah. Lead, zinc and copper fine powder with controlled size and shape[J]. AIMS Materials Science, 2017, 4(6): 1358-1371. doi: 10.3934/matersci.2017.6.1358

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  • This study describes the preparation of lead, zinc and copper powders by hydrometallurgy from secondary resources. Chloride, sulphate and acetate salts of zinc, copper and lead were prepared. The powders were prepared by reducing the ionic species of these metals by hydrazine hydrate or ascorbic acid. The effect of addition of some water soluble polar organic solvents to the aqueous salt solutions on the morphology and particle size of the prepared powder was studied. Findings were explained on the basis of the transition state theory and according to the Hughes and Ingold’s rule. Aqueous solutions alone produce metal powder having different size and irregular shape. The presence of polar organic solvents with high molecular weight and polarity produce powders having controlled size and regular morphology. The reason was because solvent polarity enhances the rate of red-ox reactions between metal ions and the reducing agent. The mean particle size of the powder was 60 um with zinc, 80 um with copper, and 90 um with lead. The extent of productivity was ≥98%. Results highlighted that the chemical reduction of the ionic species took place in a sequence steps. The first is a diffusion of the reactants across a boundary layer established at the polar site of the organic solvent molecules. The next step is the direct contact of the reactants. The third step involved reduction to yield powder. The last is the backward diffusion of the powder outside the boundary layer. Results showed that addition of water-miscible solvents having high dielectric constant increased the polarity of the medium. This energizes and enhances the one or more t step of the model to be more rapid to yield particles with small size and symmetrical shape.


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