Research article

Carbofuran residues in soil and consumption risks among farmers growing vegetables in Ubon Ratchathani Province, Thailand

  • Received: 07 June 2022 Revised: 18 July 2022 Accepted: 16 August 2022 Published: 14 September 2022
  • Farmers in Khi Lek Subdistrict, Muang District, Ubon Ratchathani Province, Thailand have been known to persistently use pesticides, especially carbofuran, in their agricultural fields. This indeed poses a risk to farmers' health and ecosystem. However, there has been no report pointing out this problem. The purpose of this study was to determine carbofuran residues in soil in four villages in Khi Lek Subdistrict, Muang District, Ubon Ratchathani Province, Thailand, where pesticides were widely used for vegetables. The quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe (QuEChERS) method was used to extract the samples, which were then analyzed utilizing high-performance liquid chromatography with a mass spectrometry detector. The health risks of carbofuran exposure through soil ingestion among 485 farmers were investigated by using the hazard quotient (HQ). The concentration of carbofuran in 10 soil samples was less than 0.01 mg/kg. The overall average of the farmers' daily dose of carbofuran in Villages 5, 8, 9 and 10 ranged from 3.9×10-9 mg/kg-day to 5×10-9 mg/kg-day, and the hazard quotient (HQ) indicated an acceptable level for health risks. However, this study found that 98.97% of the farmers ate food and 97.53% drank water while farming. As a result of this, they may still be exposed to pesticides. Since the factors contributing to human health risks include the length of exposure, frequency of exposure, and farmer body weight, this study suggests that the government should be concerned because the current pattern of pesticide use still poses an immediate health risk to the farmers. While The farmers should be trained in safe pesticide usage while safe pesticide practice should also be promoted.

    Citation: Laksanee Boonkhao, Satayu Phonkaew, Suphaphat Kwonpongsagoon, Pongsak Rattanachaikunsopon. Carbofuran residues in soil and consumption risks among farmers growing vegetables in Ubon Ratchathani Province, Thailand[J]. AIMS Environmental Science, 2022, 9(5): 593-602. doi: 10.3934/environsci.2022035

    Related Papers:

  • Farmers in Khi Lek Subdistrict, Muang District, Ubon Ratchathani Province, Thailand have been known to persistently use pesticides, especially carbofuran, in their agricultural fields. This indeed poses a risk to farmers' health and ecosystem. However, there has been no report pointing out this problem. The purpose of this study was to determine carbofuran residues in soil in four villages in Khi Lek Subdistrict, Muang District, Ubon Ratchathani Province, Thailand, where pesticides were widely used for vegetables. The quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe (QuEChERS) method was used to extract the samples, which were then analyzed utilizing high-performance liquid chromatography with a mass spectrometry detector. The health risks of carbofuran exposure through soil ingestion among 485 farmers were investigated by using the hazard quotient (HQ). The concentration of carbofuran in 10 soil samples was less than 0.01 mg/kg. The overall average of the farmers' daily dose of carbofuran in Villages 5, 8, 9 and 10 ranged from 3.9×10-9 mg/kg-day to 5×10-9 mg/kg-day, and the hazard quotient (HQ) indicated an acceptable level for health risks. However, this study found that 98.97% of the farmers ate food and 97.53% drank water while farming. As a result of this, they may still be exposed to pesticides. Since the factors contributing to human health risks include the length of exposure, frequency of exposure, and farmer body weight, this study suggests that the government should be concerned because the current pattern of pesticide use still poses an immediate health risk to the farmers. While The farmers should be trained in safe pesticide usage while safe pesticide practice should also be promoted.



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