Export file:

Format

  • RIS(for EndNote,Reference Manager,ProCite)
  • BibTex
  • Text

Content

  • Citation Only
  • Citation and Abstract

Nutrient intake, introduction of baby cereals and other complementary foods in the diets of infants and toddlers from birth to 23 months of age

1 USDA/ARS Children’s Nutrition Research Center, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, 77030, USA
2 Louisiana State University Agricultural Center (Emeritus), 143 Kenilworth Parkway, Baton Rouge, LA 70808, USA
3 Nutrition Impact, LLC, 9725 Drive North, Battle Creek, MI, 49014, USA

Introduction: Understanding which foods are introduced in the diet and when provides valuable information on complementary feeding. Fortified baby rice cereal is the most common first solid food given to infants, often followed by other baby cereals. The objective of this study was to examine food patterns among infants and toddlers consuming rice or non-rice baby cereals versus non-consumers. Methods: NHANES 2001–2014 data were used to assess dietary intake, nutrient adequacy, and food specific patterns of infants and toddlers. Groups were: baby cereal non-consumers (n = 3,910), non-rice baby cereal consumers (n = 711), and rice baby cereal consumers (n = 966). Those consuming both non-rice cereal and rice cereal were included in the rice cereal group (n = 9, 48, 61, and 10 for those 0–3, 4–6, 7–11, and 12–23 mos, respectively). Least-square means ± SEs were determined for nutrient intake and food group consumption by using covariate controlled regression analyses (p < 0.01). Results: Baby cereal consumer groups, compared to non-consumers, had higher intakes of carbohydrates, iron, calcium, magnesium, zinc, and vitamin E, with lower percentage having intakes below the Estimated Average Requirement for iron, calcium, and vitamin E. Infants 0–3 mos and 4–6 mos in both baby cereal consumption groups consumed other solid foods, including baby foods and beverages, sweetened beverages, coffee and tea, 100% juice, vegetables (excluding potatoes), fruit, sugars, milk and yogurt, and mixed dishes. The baby cereal consumers and non-consumers groups had intakes aligned with the “American diet”. Baby cereal non-consumers had a significantly higher percentage of exclusively breast fed at ages 0–3 mos and a lower percentage formula fed. Conclusion: This study provides detailed information on the introduction of baby cereals which was associated with better nutrient intakes and other complementary foods and intakes of nutrients that require special attention during early life. Further, cow’s milk products and solid foods were introduced prior to the American Academy of Pediatrics’ age recommendations.
  Figure/Table
  Supplementary
  Article Metrics

Keywords NHANES; infants; toddlers; baby cereal; baby rice cereal; complementary foods

Citation: Theresa A Nicklas, Carol E O’Neil, Victor L Fulgoni III. Nutrient intake, introduction of baby cereals and other complementary foods in the diets of infants and toddlers from birth to 23 months of age. AIMS Public Health , 2020, 7(1): 123-147. doi: 10.3934/publichealth.2020012

References

  • 1. Birch L, Savage JS, Ventura A (2007) Influences on the development of children's eating behaviours: From infancy to adolescence. Can J Diet Pract Res 68: s1–s56.
  • 2. American Academy of Pediatrics, Committee on Nutrition (1992) The use of whole cow's milk in infancy (policy statement). AAP News 8: 8–22.
  • 3. American Academy of Pediatrics (1997) Breastfeeding and the use of human milk. Work group on breastfeeding. Pediatrics 100: 1035–1039.
  • 4. Fomon SJ (2001) Feeding normal infants: Rationale for recommendations. J Am Diet Assoc 101: 1002–1005.    
  • 5. American Academy of Pediatrics, & Committee on Nutrition (2014) Feeding the infant: Complementary feeding. In: R. E. Kleinman & F. R. Greer (Eds.), Pediatric nutrition, 7th Eds., Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics, 123–139
  • 6. U S Department of Agriculture (2009) Complementary foods. Washington, DC: United States Department of Agriculture.
  • 7. Rihane C (2014) Developing national dietary guidance for the birth to 24 months age group. Retrieved 28 August, 2019. Available from: https://www.usda.gov/media/blog/2014/05/06/developing-national-dietary-guidance-birth-24-months-age-group
  • 8. US Department of Agriculture. Pregnancy and birth to 24 months project. Retrieved March 21, 2019, Available from: https://www.fns.usda.gov/resource/pregnancy-and-birth-24-months
  • 9. Raiten DJ, Raghavan R, Porter A, et al. (2014) Executive summary: Evaluating the evidence base to support the inclusion of infants and children from birth to 24 mo of age in the dietary guidelines for americans-"the B-24 project". Am J Clin Nutr 99: 663s–691s.    
  • 10. U.S. Department of health and human services and U.S. Department of agriculture. 2015–2020 dietary guidelines for americans. 8th edition. December 2015. Available from: http://health.Gov/dietaryguidelines/2015/guidelines/.
  • 11. Demmer E, Cifelli CJ, Houchins JA, et al. (2018). The pattern of complementary foods in american infants and children aged 0–5 years old-a cross-sectional analysis of data from the Nhanes 2011–2014. Nutrients 10: 827.
  • 12. Institute of Medicine (U.S.) (2005) Panel on dietary reference intakes for electrolytes and water. Dietary reference intakes for water, potassium, sodium, chloride, and sulfate / panel on dietary reference intakes for electrolytes and water, standing committee on the scientific evaluation of dietary reference intakes, food and nutrition board. Washington, D.C: National Academies Press.
  • 13. Institute of Medicine (U.S.) (2005) Panel on macronutrients, panel on the definition of dietary fiber, subcommittee on upper reference levels of nutrients, subcommittee on interpretation and uses of dietary reference intakes, and the standing committee on the scientific evaluation of dietary reference intakes, food and nutrition board. Dietary reference intakes for energy, carbohydrate, fiber, fat, fatty acids, cholesterol, protein, and amino acids. Washington D.C: National Academies Press.
  • 14. Bailey RL, Catellier DJ, Jun S, et al. (2018) Total usual nutrient intakes of us children (under 48 months): Findings from the feeding infants and toddlers study (fits) 2016. J Nutr 148: 1557S–1566S.    
  • 15. Lozoff B, Beard J, Connor J, et al. (2006) Long-lasting neural and behavioral effects of iron deficiency in infancy. Nutr Rev 64: S34–43.    
  • 16. Radlowski EC, Johnson RW (2013) Perinatal iron deficiency and neurocognitive development. Front Hum Neurosci 7: 585.
  • 17. Patro-Golab B, Zalewski BM, Kolodziej M, et al. (2016) Nutritional interventions or exposures in infants and children aged up to 3 years and their effects on subsequent risk of overweight, obesity and body fat: A systematic review of systematic reviews. Obes Rev 17: 1245–1257.    
  • 18. Pearce J, Taylor MA, Langley-Evans SC (2013) Timing of the introduction of complementary feeding and risk of childhood obesity: A systematic review. Int J Obes (Lond) 37: 1295–1306.    
  • 19. Ziegler EE (2011) Consumption of cow's milk as a cause of iron deficiency in infants and toddlers. Nutr Rev 69: S37–42.    
  • 20. Fox MK, Pac S, Devaney B, et al. (2004) Feeding infants and toddlers study: What foods are infants and toddlers eating? J Am Diet Assoc 104: s22–30.
  • 21. Grummer-Strawn LM, Scanlon KS, Fein SB (2008) Infant feeding and feeding transitions during the first year of life. Pediatrics 122: S36–S42.    
  • 22. Nicklaus S (2016) Complementary feeding strategies to facilitate acceptance of fruits and vegetables: A narrative review of the literature. Int J Environ Res Public Health 13.
  • 23. American Academy of Pediatrics, & Committee on Nutrition (2008) Feeding the infant: Complimentary feeding. In: R. E. Kleinman (Ed.), Pediatric nutrition handbook, 6th Eds., Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics, 113–142
  • 24. Grimes CA, Szymlek-Gay EA, Campbell KJ, et al. (2015) Food sources of total energy and nutrients among u.S. Infants and toddlers: National health and nutrition examination survey 2005–2012. Nutrients 7: 6797–6836.
  • 25. Ahluwalia N, Dwyer J, Terry A, et al. (2016) Update on nhanes dietary data: Focus on collection, release, analytical considerations, and uses to inform public policy. Adv Nutr 7: 121–134.    
  • 26. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, & National Center for Health Statistics National health and nutrition examination survey, survey methods and analytic guidelines. Retrieved Feb 25, 2020. Available from: https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nchs/nhanes/analyticguidelines.aspx
  • 27. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, & National Center for Health Statistics. National health and nutrition examination survey questionnaires, datasets, and related documentation. Retrieved February 5, 2019. Available from: https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nchs/nhanes/
  • 28. Centers for disease control and prevention, national center for health statistics. The national health and nutrition examination survey (nhanes) analytic and reporting guidelines. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nhanes/nhanes_03_04/nhanes_analytic_guidelines_dec_2005.pd f (accessed 25 February 2020).
  • 29. United states department of health and human services. Centers for disease control and prevention. National center for health statistics. National health and nutrition examination survey, nhanes response rates and population totals. Available from: https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nchs/nhanes/ResponseRates.aspx (accessed 25 February 2020).
  • 30. Centers for disease control and prevention. Nhanes. Documentation, codebooks, sas code. Available from: https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nchs/nhanes/continuousnhanes/default.Aspx?Beginyear=2011 (accessed 25 February 2020).
  • 31. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2007) National health and nutrition examination survey. Anthropometry procedures manual pdf. Retrieved 27 August, 2019. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nhanes/nhanes_07_08/manual_an.pdf
  • 32. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, & National Center for Health Statistics. December (2016). Cdc growth charts. Retrieved 4 March, 2019. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/growthcharts/cdc_charts.htm
  • 33. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2002) Mec in-person dietary interviewers procedures manual pdf. Retrieved 4 March, 2019. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nhanes/nhanes_01_02/dietary_year_3.pdf
  • 34. United States Department of Agriculture. What we eat in america food categories from Food Surveys Research Group. Available from: https://www.ars.usda.gov/northeast-area/beltsville-md-bhnrc/beltsville-human-nutrition-research-center/food-surveys-research-group/docs/dmr-food-categories
  • 35. United States Department of Agriculture, & Agricultural Research Service Usda food and nutrient database for dietary studies. Retrieved February 5, 2019. Available from: http://www.ars.usda.gov/Services/docs.htm?docid=12089
  • 36. Bowman SA, Clemens JC, Shimizu M, et al. (2018) Food pattern equivalent database 2015–2016: Methodology and user guide. Available from: https://www.ars.usda.gov/northeast-area/beltsville-md-bhnrc/beltsville-human-nutrition-research-center/food-surveys-research-group/docs/fped-methodology/
  • 37. Dietary reference intakes: Applications in dietary assessment (2000) Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
  • 38. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, & National Center for Health Statistics (2018) National health and nutrition examination survey, nhanes survey methods and analytic guidelines. Retrieved October 14, 2019. Available from: https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nchs/nhanes/analyticguidelines.aspx
  • 39. National Cancer Institute (2018) Usual dietary intakes: The nci method. Retrieved March 21, 2019. Available from: https://epi.grants.cancer.gov/diet/usualintakes/method.html
  • 40. U.S. Department of Agriculture, & Agriculture Research Service. Food patterns equivalents database. Databases and sas data sets. Retrieved September, 2018. Available from: https://www.ars.usda.gov/northeast-area/beltsville-md-bhnrc/beltsville-human-nutrition-research-center/food-surveys-research-group/docs/fped-databases/
  • 41. National academies of sciences, engineering, and medicine. Dietary reference intakes (dris): Estimated average requirements. Retrieved January 8, 2020. Available from: http://nationalacademies.org/hmd/~/media/Files/Report%20Files/2019/DRI-Tables-2019/1_EARV.pdf?la=en
  • 42. Finn K, Callen C, Bhatia J, et al. (2017) Importance of dietary sources of iron in infants and toddlers: Lessons from the fits study. Nutrients 9: 733.    
  • 43. Beauchamp GK, Cowart BJ (1987) Development of sweet taste, London.
  • 44. De Graaf C, Zandstra EH (1999) Sweetness intensity and pleasantness in children, adolescents, and adults. Physiol Behav 67: 513–520.    
  • 45. Desor JA, Greene LS, Maller O (1975) Preferences for sweet and salty in 9- to 15-year-old and adult humans. Science 190: 686–687.    
  • 46. Enns MP, Van Itallie TB, Grinker JA (1979) Contributions of age, sex and degree of fatness on preferences and magnitude estimations for sucrose in humans. Physio Behav 22: 999–1003.    
  • 47. Jamel HA, Sheiham A, Watt RG, et al. (1997) Sweet preference, consumption of sweet tea and dental caries; studies in urban and rural iraqi populations. Int Dent J 47: 213–217.    
  • 48. Liem DG, Mennella JA (2002) Sweet and sour preferences during childhood: Role of early experiences. Dev Psychobiol 41: 388–395.    
  • 49. Nilsson B, Holm AK (1983) Taste thresholds, taste preferences, and dental caries in 15-year-olds. J Dent Res 62: 1069–1072.    
  • 50. Tomita NE, Nadanovsky P, Vieira AL, et al. (1999) Taste preference for sweets and caries prevalence in preschool children. Rev Saude 33: 542–546.    
  • 51. Gahche JJ, Herrick KA, Potischman N, et al. (2019) Dietary supplement use among infants and toddlers aged < 24 months in the united states, nhanes 2007–2014. J Nutr 149: 314–322.    
  • 52. Kohli-Kumar M (2001) Screening for anemia in children: Aap recommendations-A critique. Pediatrics 108: E56.    
  • 53. Siu AL (2015) Screening for iron deficiency anemia in young children: Uspstf recommendation statement. Pediatrics 136: 746–752.    
  • 54. Fox MK, Reidy K, Novak T, et al. (2006) Sources of energy and nutrients in the diets of infants and toddlers. J Am Diet Assoc 106: S28–42.

 

Reader Comments

your name: *   your email: *  

© 2020 the Author(s), licensee AIMS Press. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licese (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0)

Download full text in PDF

Export Citation

Copyright © AIMS Press All Rights Reserved