Export file:


  • RIS(for EndNote,Reference Manager,ProCite)
  • BibTex
  • Text


  • Citation Only
  • Citation and Abstract

The functional roles of T-cadherin in mammalian biology

1 College of Public Health, Medical and Veterinary Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, Australia
2 Comparative Genomics Centre, James Cook University, Townsville, Australia
3 Australian Institute of Tropical Health and Medicine, James Cook University, Townsville, Australia
4 Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, James Cook University, Townsville, Australia
5 Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation and School of Biomedical Sciences, Queensland University of Technology (QUT), Brisbane. Australia

Topical Section: Cells Signalling and Signal Transduction

T-cadherin is a cadherin and cell adhesion molecule that is anchored to the cell surface membrane through a glycosylphosphatidylinositol moiety. T-cadherin lacks a transmembrane and cytoskeletal domain, suggesting that it must interact with other membrane-bound molecules to elicit cellular signaling to modulate normal cellular functions, and alternatively its absence can be a factor in promoting neoplasia. Moreover, apart from binding to itself it can sequester adiponectin to the cell surface. Consistent with these observations, recent research has expanded the scope of T-cadherin’s role in cancer, neuronal function, metabolism and cardiovascular disease. In this context, we highlight the experimental and genomic evidence that links T-cadherin with these diseases. In particular, we discuss how T-cadherin homophilic and heterophilic interactions impact on signaling pathways and cellular behavior.
  Article Metrics

Keywords T-cadherin; CDH13; adiponectin; metabolism; cancer

Citation: Jade Sternberg, Miriam Wankell, V. Nathan Subramaniam, Lionel W. Hebbard. The functional roles of T-cadherin in mammalian biology. AIMS Molecular Science, 2017, 4(1): 62-81. doi: 10.3934/molsci.2017.1.62


  • 1. Berx G, van Roy F (2009) Involvement of members of the cadherin superfamily in cancer. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol 1: a003129.
  • 2. Ranscht B, Dours-Zimmermann MT (1991) T-cadherin, a novel cadherin cell adhesion molecule in the nervous system lacks the conserved cytoplasmic region. Neuron 7: 391-402.    
  • 3. Pfaff D, Philippova M, Kyriakakis E, et al. (2011) Paradoxical effects of T-cadherin on squamous cell carcinoma: up- and down-regulation increase xenograft growth by distinct mechanisms. J Pathol 225: 512-524.    
  • 4. Fredette BJ, Ranscht B (1994) T-cadherin expression delineates specific regions of the developing motor axon-hindlimb projection pathway. J Neurosci 14: 7331-7346.
  • 5. Philippova M, Joshi MB, Kyriakakis E, et al. (2009) A guide and guard: the many faces of T-cadherin. Cell Signal 21: 1035-1044.    
  • 6. Rubina KA, Surkova EI, Semina EV, et al. (2015) T-Cadherin Expression in Melanoma Cells Stimulates Stromal Cell Recruitment and Invasion by Regulating the Expression of Chemokines, Integrins and Adhesion Molecules. Cancers (Basel) 7: 1349-1370.    
  • 7. Wyder L, Vitaliti A, Schneider H, et al. (2000) Increased expression of H/T-cadherin in tumor-penetrating blood vessels. Cancer Res 60: 4682-4688.
  • 8. Dames SA, Bang E, Haussinger D, et al. (2008) Insights into the low adhesive capacity of human T-cadherin from the NMR structure of Its N-terminal extracellular domain. J Biol Chem 283: 23485-23495.    
  • 9. Teng MS, Hsu LA, Wu S, et al. (2015) Association of CDH13 genotypes/haplotypes with circulating adiponectin levels, metabolic syndrome, and related metabolic phenotypes: the role of the suppression effect. PLoS One 10: e0122664.    
  • 10. Org E, Eyheramendy S, Juhanson P, et al. (2009) Genome-wide scan identifies CDH13 as a novel susceptibility locus contributing to blood pressure determination in two European populations. Hum Mol Genet 18: 2288-2296.    
  • 11. Angst BD, Marcozzi C, Magee AI (2001) The cadherin superfamily: diversity in form and function. J Cell Sci 114: 629-641.
  • 12. Sato M, Mori Y, Sakurada A, et al. (1998) The H-cadherin (CDH13) gene is inactivated in human lung cancer. Hum Genet 103: 96-101.    
  • 13. Behrens J, Lowrick O, Klein-Hitpass L, et al. (1991) The E-cadherin promoter: functional analysis of a G.C-rich region and an epithelial cell-specific palindromic regulatory element. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 88: 11495-11499.
  • 14. Jarrard DF, Paul R, van Bokhoven A, et al. (1997) P-Cadherin is a basal cell-specific epithelial marker that is not expressed in prostate cancer. Clin Cancer Res 3: 2121-2128.
  • 15. Bromhead C, Miller JH, McDonald FJ (2006) Regulation of T-cadherin by hormones, glucocorticoid and EGF. Gene 374: 58-67.    
  • 16. Niermann T, Schmutz S, Erne P, et al. (2003) Aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligands repress T-cadherin expression in vascular smooth muscle cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 300: 943-949.    
  • 17. Ellmann L, Joshi MB, Resink TJ, et al. (2012) BRN2 is a transcriptional repressor of CDH13 (T-cadherin) in melanoma cells. Lab Invest 92: 1788-1800.    
  • 18. Kuzmenko YS, Stambolsky D, Kern F, et al. (1998) Characteristics of smooth muscle cell lipoprotein binding proteins (p105/p130) as T-cadherin and regulation by positive and negative growth regulators. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 246: 489-494.    
  • 19. Ciatto C, Bahna F, Zampieri N, et al. (2010) T-cadherin structures reveal a novel adhesive binding mechanism. Nat Struct Mol Biol 17: 339-347.    
  • 20. Vestal DJ, Ranscht B (1992) Glycosyl phosphatidylinositol--anchored T-cadherin mediates calcium-dependent, homophilic cell adhesion. J Cell Biol 119: 451-461.    
  • 21. Sacristan MP, Vestal DJ, Dours-Zimmermann MT, et al. (1993) T-cadherin 2: molecular characterization, function in cell adhesion, and coexpression with T-cadherin and N-cadherin. J Neurosci Res 34: 664-680.    
  • 22. Harrison OJ, Bahna F, Katsamba PS, et al. (2010) Two-step adhesive binding by classical cadherins. Nat Struct Mol Biol 17: 348-357.    
  • 23. Winterhalter PR, Lommel M, Ruppert T, et al. (2013) O-glycosylation of the non-canonical T-cadherin from rabbit skeletal muscle by single mannose residues. FEBS Lett 587: 3715-3721.    
  • 24. Stambolsky DV, Kuzmenko YS, Philippova MP, et al. (1999) Identification of 130 kDa cell surface LDL-binding protein from smooth muscle cells as a partially processed T-cadherin precursor. Biochim Biophys Acta 1416: 155-160.    
  • 25. Mavroconstanti T, Johansson S, Winge I, et al. (2013) Functional properties of rare missense variants of human CDH13 found in adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) patients. PLoS One 8: e71445.    
  • 26. Wang Y, Lam KS, Yau MH, et al. (2008) Post-translational modifications of adiponectin: mechanisms and functional implications. Biochem J 409: 623-633.    
  • 27. Fruebis J, Tsao TS, Javorschi S, et al. (2001) Proteolytic cleavage product of 30-kDa adipocyte complement-related protein increases fatty acid oxidation in muscle and causes weight loss in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98: 2005-2010.    
  • 28. Pajvani UB, Hawkins M, Combs TP, et al. (2004) Complex distribution, not absolute amount of adiponectin, correlates with thiazolidinedione-mediated improvement in insulin sensitivity. J Biol Chem 279: 12152-12162.    
  • 29. Scherer PE, Williams S, Fogliano M, et al. (1995) A novel serum protein similar to C1q, produced exclusively in adipocytes. J Biol Chem 270: 26746-26749.    
  • 30. Yamauchi T, Kamon J, Ito Y, et al. (2003) Cloning of adiponectin receptors that mediate antidiabetic metabolic effects. Nature 423: 762-769.    
  • 31. Yamauchi T, Kadowaki T (2013) Adiponectin receptor as a key player in healthy longevity and obesity-related diseases. Cell Metab 17: 185-196.    
  • 32. Hebbard L, Ranscht B (2014) Multifaceted roles of adiponectin in cancer. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 28: 59-69.    
  • 33. Hug C, Wang J, Ahmad NS, et al. (2004) T-cadherin is a receptor for hexameric and high-molecular-weight forms of Acrp30/adiponectin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101: 10308-10313.    
  • 34. Hebbard LW, Garlatti M, Young LJ, et al. (2008) T-cadherin supports angiogenesis and adiponectin association with the vasculature in a mouse mammary tumor model. Cancer Res 68: 1407-1416.    
  • 35. Denzel MS, Scimia MC, Zumstein PM, et al. (2010) T-cadherin is critical for adiponectin-mediated cardioprotection in mice. J Clin Invest 120: 4342-4352.    
  • 36. Parker-Duffen JL, Nakamura K, Silver M, et al. (2013) T-cadherin is essential for adiponectin-mediated revascularization. J Biol Chem 288: 24886-24897.    
  • 37. Rivero O, Sich S, Popp S, et al. (2013) Impact of the ADHD-susceptibility gene CDH13 on development and function of brain networks. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 23: 492-507.    
  • 38. Fredette BJ, Miller J, Ranscht B (1996) Inhibition of motor axon growth by T-cadherin substrata. Development 122: 3163-3171.
  • 39. Hayano Y, Zhao H, Kobayashi H, et al. (2014) The role of T-cadherin in axonal pathway formation in neocortical circuits. Development 141: 4784-4793.    
  • 40. Treutlein J, Cichon S, Ridinger M, et al. (2009) Genome-wide association study of alcohol dependence. Arch Gen Psychiatry 66: 773-784.    
  • 41. Johnson C, Drgon T, Liu QR, et al. (2006) Pooled association genome scanning for alcohol dependence using 104,268 SNPs: validation and use to identify alcoholism vulnerability loci in unrelated individuals from the collaborative study on the genetics of alcoholism. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 141B: 844-853.    
  • 42. Arias-Vasquez A, Altink ME, Rommelse NN, et al. (2011) CDH13 is associated with working memory performance in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Genes Brain Behav 10: 844-851.    
  • 43. Rivero O, Selten MM, Sich S, et al. (2015) Cadherin-13, a risk gene for ADHD and comorbid disorders, impacts GABAergic function in hippocampus and cognition. Transl Psychiatry 5: e655.    
  • 44. Drgonova J, Walther D, Hartstein GL, et al. (2016) Cadherin 13: human cis-regulation and selectively-altered addiction phenotypes and cerebral cortical dopamine in knockout mice. Mol Med 22.
  • 45. Shen LH, Liao MH, Tseng YC (2012) Recent advances in imaging of dopaminergic neurons for evaluation of neuropsychiatric disorders. J Biomed Biotechnol 2012: 259349.
  • 46. Poliak S, Norovich AL, Yamagata M, et al. (2016) Muscle-type Identity of Proprioceptors Specified by Spatially Restricted Signals from Limb Mesenchyme. Cell 164: 512-525.    
  • 47. Huang ZY, Wu Y, Hedrick N, et al. (2003) T-cadherin-mediated cell growth regulation involves G2 phase arrest and requires p21(CIP1/WAF1) expression. Mol Cell Biol 23: 566-578.    
  • 48. Matsuda K, Fujishima Y, Maeda N, et al. (2015) Positive feedback regulation between adiponectin and T-cadherin impacts adiponectin levels in tissue and plasma of male mice. Endocrinology 156: 934-946.    
  • 49. Niermann T, Kern F, Erne P, et al. (2000) The glycosyl phosphatidylinositol anchor of human T-cadherin binds lipoproteins. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 276: 1240-1247.    
  • 50. Joshi MB, Philippova M, Ivanov D, et al. (2005) T-cadherin protects endothelial cells from oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. FASEB J 19: 1737-1739.
  • 51. Joshi MB, Ivanov D, Philippova M, et al. (2007) Integrin-linked kinase is an essential mediator for T-cadherin-dependent signaling via Akt and GSK3beta in endothelial cells. FASEB J 21: 3083-3095.    
  • 52. Philippova M, Ivanov D, Joshi MB, et al. (2008) Identification of proteins associating with glycosylphosphatidylinositol- anchored T-cadherin on the surface of vascular endothelial cells: role for Grp78/BiP in T-cadherin-dependent cell survival. Mol Cell Biol 28: 4004-4017.    
  • 53. Kyriakakis E, Philippova M, Joshi MB, et al. (2010) T-cadherin attenuates the PERK branch of the unfolded protein response and protects vascular endothelial cells from endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis. Cell Signal 22: 1308-1316.    
  • 54. Resink TJ, Kuzmenko YS, Kern F, et al. (1999) LDL binds to surface-expressed human T-cadherin in transfected HEK293 cells and influences homophilic adhesive interactions. FEBS Lett 463: 29-34.    
  • 55. Rubina K, Talovskaya E, Cherenkov V, et al. (2005) LDL induces intracellular signalling and cell migration via atypical LDL-binding protein T-cadherin. Mol Cell Biochem 273: 33-41.    
  • 56. Kipmen-Korgun D, Osibow K, Zoratti C, et al. (2005) T-cadherin mediates low-density lipoprotein-initiated cell proliferation via the Ca(2+)-tyrosine kinase-Erk1/2 pathway. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 45: 418-430.    
  • 57. Ivanov D, Philippova M, Tkachuk V, et al. (2004) Cell adhesion molecule T-cadherin regulates vascular cell adhesion, phenotype and motility. Exp Cell Res 293: 207-218.    
  • 58. Ivanov D, Philippova M, Allenspach R, et al. (2004) T-cadherin upregulation correlates with cell-cycle progression and promotes proliferation of vascular cells. Cardiovasc Res 64: 132-143.    
  • 59. Philippova M, Banfi A, Ivanov D, et al. (2006) Atypical GPI-anchored T-cadherin stimulates angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 26: 2222-2230.    
  • 60. Frismantiene A, Pfaff D, Frachet A, et al. (2014) Regulation of contractile signaling and matrix remodeling by T-cadherin in vascular smooth muscle cells: constitutive and insulin-dependent effects. Cell Signal 26: 1897-1908.    
  • 61. Kostopoulos CG, Spiroglou SG, Varakis JN, et al. (2014) Adiponectin/T-cadherin and apelin/APJ expression in human arteries and periadventitial fat: implication of local adipokine signaling in atherosclerosis? Cardiovasc Pathol 23: 131-138.    
  • 62. Fujishima Y, Maeda N, Matsuda K, et al. (2017) Adiponectin association with T-cadherin protects against neointima proliferation and atherosclerosis. FASEB J.
  • 63. Philippova M, Suter Y, Toggweiler S, et al. (2011) T-cadherin is present on endothelial microparticles and is elevated in plasma in early atherosclerosis. Eur Heart J 32: 760-771.    
  • 64. Tyrberg B, Miles P, Azizian KT, et al. (2011) T-cadherin (Cdh13) in association with pancreatic beta-cell granules contributes to second phase insulin secretion. Islets 3: 327-337.    
  • 65. Andreeva AV, Kutuzov MA (2010) Cadherin 13 in cancer. Genes Chromosomes Cancer 49: 775-790.
  • 66. Kong DD, Yang J, Li L, et al. (2015) T-cadherin association with clinicopathological features and prognosis in axillary lymph node-positive breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat 150: 119-126.    
  • 67. Lee SW (1996) H-cadherin, a novel cadherin with growth inhibitory functions and diminished expression in human breast cancer. Nat Med 2: 776-782.    
  • 68. Toyooka KO, Toyooka S, Virmani AK, et al. (2001) Loss of expression and aberrant methylation of the CDH13 (H-cadherin) gene in breast and lung carcinomas. Cancer Res 61: 4556-4560.
  • 69. Miki Y, Katagiri T, Nakamura Y (1997) Infrequent mutation of the H-cadherin gene on chromosome 16q24 in human breast cancers. Jpn J Cancer Res 88: 701-704.    
  • 70. Celebiler Cavusoglu A, Kilic Y, Saydam S, et al. (2009) Predicting invasive phenotype with CDH1, CDH13, CD44, and TIMP3 gene expression in primary breast cancer. Cancer Sci 100: 2341-2345.    
  • 71. Toyooka S, Toyooka KO, Harada K, et al. (2002) Aberrant methylation of the CDH13 (H-cadherin) promoter region in colorectal cancers and adenomas. Cancer Res 62: 3382-3386.
  • 72. Wei B, Shi H, Lu X, et al. (2015) Association between the expression of T-cadherin and vascular endothelial growth factor and the prognosis of patients with gastric cancer. Mol Med Rep 12: 2075-2081.
  • 73. Hibi K, Kodera Y, Ito K, et al. (2004) Methylation pattern of CDH13 gene in digestive tract cancers. Br J Cancer 91: 1139-1142.
  • 74. Hibi K, Nakayama H, Kodera Y, et al. (2004) CDH13 promoter region is specifically methylated in poorly differentiated colorectal cancer. Br J Cancer 90: 1030-1033.    
  • 75. Scarpa M, Scarpa M, Castagliuolo I, et al. (2016) Aberrant gene methylation in non-neoplastic mucosa as a predictive marker of ulcerative colitis-associated CRC. Oncotarget 7: 10322-10331.
  • 76. Ren JZ, Huo JR (2012) Correlation between T-cadherin gene expression and aberrant methylation of T-cadherin promoter in human colon carcinoma cells. Med Oncol 29: 915-918.    
  • 77. Zhong Y, Delgado Y, Gomez J, et al. (2001) Loss of H-cadherin protein expression in human non-small cell lung cancer is associated with tumorigenicity. Clin Cancer Res 7: 1683-1687.
  • 78. Brock MV, Hooker CM, Ota-Machida E, et al. (2008) DNA methylation markers and early recurrence in stage I lung cancer. N Engl J Med 358: 1118-1128.    
  • 79. Zhou S, Matsuyoshi N, Liang SB, et al. (2002) Expression of T-cadherin in Basal keratinocytes of skin. J Invest Dermatol 118: 1080-1084.    
  • 80. Takeuchi T, Liang SB, Matsuyoshi N, et al. (2002) Loss of T-cadherin (CDH13, H-cadherin) expression in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. Lab Invest 82: 1023-1029.    
  • 81. Mukoyama Y, Zhou S, Miyachi Y, et al. (2005) T-cadherin negatively regulates the proliferation of cutaneous squamous carcinoma cells. J Invest Dermatol 124: 833-838.    
  • 82. Mukoyama Y, Utani A, Matsui S, et al. (2007) T-cadherin enhances cell-matrix adhesiveness by regulating beta1 integrin trafficking in cutaneous squamous carcinoma cells. Genes Cells 12: 787-796.
  • 83. Pfaff D, Philippova M, Buechner SA, et al. (2010) T-cadherin loss induces an invasive phenotype in human keratinocytes and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cells in vitro and is associated with malignant transformation of cutaneous SCC in vivo. Br J Dermatol 163: 353-363.    
  • 84. Kyriakakis E, Maslova K, Philippova M, et al. (2012) T-Cadherin is an auxiliary negative regulator of EGFR pathway activity in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma: impact on cell motility. J Invest Dermatol 132: 2275-2285.    
  • 85. Philippova M, Pfaff D, Kyriakakis E, et al. (2013) T-cadherin loss promotes experimental metastasis of squamous cell carcinoma. Eur J Cancer 49: 2048-2058.    
  • 86. Wang XD, Wang BE, Soriano R, et al. (2007) Expression profiling of the mouse prostate after castration and hormone replacement: implication of H-cadherin in prostate tumorigenesis. Differentiation 75: 219-234.    
  • 87. Dasen B, Vlajnic T, Mengus C, et al. (2016) T-cadherin in prostate cancer: relationship with cancer progression, differentiation and drug resistance. J Pathol Clin Res 3: 44-57.
  • 88. Thomas G, Jacobs KB, Yeager M, et al. (2008) Multiple loci identified in a genome-wide association study of prostate cancer. Nat Genet 40: 310-315.    
  • 89. Maslova K, Kyriakakis E, Pfaff D, et al. (2015) EGFR and IGF-1R in regulation of prostate cancer cell phenotype and polarity: opposing functions and modulation by T-cadherin. FASEB J 29: 494-507.    
  • 90. Lin Y, Sun G, Liu X, et al. (2011) Clinical significance of T-cadherin tissue expression in patients with bladder transitional cell carcinoma. Urol Int 86: 340-345.    
  • 91. Lin YL, Liu XQ, Li WP, et al. (2012) Promoter methylation of H-cadherin is a potential biomarker in patients with bladder transitional cell carcinoma. Int Urol Nephrol 44: 111-117.    
  • 92. Lin YL, Sun G, Liu XQ, et al. (2011) Clinical significance of CDH13 promoter methylation in serum samples from patients with bladder transitional cell carcinoma. J Int Med Res 39: 179-186.    
  • 93. Lin YL, Xie PG, Ma JG (2014) Aberrant methylation of CDH13 is a potential biomarker for predicting the recurrence and progression of non muscle invasive bladder cancer. Med Sci Monit 20: 1572-1577.    
  • 94. Lin YL, He ZK, Li ZG, et al. (2013) Downregulation of CDH13 expression promotes invasiveness of bladder transitional cell carcinoma. Urol Int 90: 225-232.    
  • 95. Roman-Gomez J, Castillejo JA, Jimenez A, et al. (2003) Cadherin-13, a mediator of calcium-dependent cell-cell adhesion, is silenced by methylation in chronic myeloid leukemia and correlates with pretreatment risk profile and cytogenetic response to interferon alfa. J Clin Oncol 21: 1472-1479.    
  • 96. Sakai M, Hibi K, Koshikawa K, et al. (2004) Frequent promoter methylation and gene silencing of CDH13 in pancreatic cancer. Cancer Sci 95: 588-591.    
  • 97. Jee SH, Sull JW, Lee JE, et al. (2010) Adiponectin concentrations: a genome-wide association study. Am J Hum Genet 87: 545-552.    
  • 98. Choi JR, Jang Y, Kim Yoon S, et al. (2015) The Impact of CDH13 Polymorphism and Statin Administration on TG/HDL Ratio in Cardiovascular Patients. Yonsei Med J 56: 1604-1612.    
  • 99. Wu Y, Li Y, Lange EM, et al. (2010) Genome-wide association study for adiponectin levels in Filipino women identifies CDH13 and a novel uncommon haplotype at KNG1-ADIPOQ. Hum Mol Genet 19: 4955-4964.    
  • 100. Nicolas A, Aubert R, Bellili-Munoz N, et al. (2016) T-cadherin gene variants are associated with type 2 diabetes and the Fatty Liver Index in the French population. Diabetes Metab.
  • 101. Chung CM, Lin TH, Chen JW, et al. (2011) A genome-wide association study reveals a quantitative trait locus of adiponectin on CDH13 that predicts cardiometabolic outcomes. Diabetes 60: 2417-2423.    
  • 102. Fava C, Danese E, Montagnana M, et al. (2011) A variant upstream of the CDH13 adiponectin receptor gene and metabolic syndrome in Swedes. Am J Cardiol 108: 1432-1437.    
  • 103. Park J, Kim I, Jung KJ, et al. (2015) Gene-gene interaction analysis identifies a new genetic risk factor for colorectal cancer. J Biomed Sci 22: 73.    
  • 104. Kudrjashova E, Bashtrikov P, Bochkov V, et al. (2002) Expression of adhesion molecule T-cadherin is increased during neointima formation in experimental restenosis. Histochem Cell Biol 118: 281-290.


This article has been cited by

  • 1. Neslihan Coban, Dilek Pirim, Aycan Fahri Erkan, Berkcan Dogan, Berkay Ekici, Hsa-miR-584-5p as a novel candidate biomarker in Turkish men with severe coronary artery disease, Molecular Biology Reports, 2019, 10.1007/s11033-019-05235-2
  • 2. Vaida Baltrūnienė, Ieva Rinkūnaitė, Julius Bogomolovas, Daiva Bironaitė, Ieva Kažukauskienė, Egidijus Šimoliūnas, Kęstutis Ručinskas, Roma Puronaitė, Virginija Bukelskienė, Virginija Grabauskienė, The Role of Cardiac T-Cadherin in the Indicating Heart Failure Severity of Patients with Non-Ischemic Dilated Cardiomyopathy, Medicina, 2020, 56, 1, 27, 10.3390/medicina56010027

Reader Comments

your name: *   your email: *  

Copyright Info: 2017, Lionel W. Hebbard, et al., licensee AIMS Press. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licese (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0)

Download full text in PDF

Export Citation

Copyright © AIMS Press All Rights Reserved