Review

Small hydrophobic viral proteins involved in intercellular movement of diverse plant virus genomes

  • Received: 23 July 2020 Accepted: 13 September 2020 Published: 21 September 2020
  • Most plant viruses code for movement proteins (MPs) targeting plasmodesmata to enable cell-to-cell and systemic spread in infected plants. Small membrane-embedded MPs have been first identified in two viral transport gene modules, triple gene block (TGB) coding for an RNA-binding helicase TGB1 and two small hydrophobic proteins TGB2 and TGB3 and double gene block (DGB) encoding two small polypeptides representing an RNA-binding protein and a membrane protein. These findings indicated that movement gene modules composed of two or more cistrons may encode the nucleic acid-binding protein and at least one membrane-bound movement protein. The same rule was revealed for small DNA-containing plant viruses, namely, viruses belonging to genus Mastrevirus (family Geminiviridae) and the family Nanoviridae. In multi-component transport modules the nucleic acid-binding MP can be viral capsid protein(s), as in RNA-containing viruses of the families Closteroviridae and Potyviridae. However, membrane proteins are always found among MPs of these multicomponent viral transport systems. Moreover, it was found that small membrane MPs encoded by many viruses can be involved in coupling viral replication and cell-to-cell movement. Currently, the studies of evolutionary origin and functioning of small membrane MPs is regarded as an important pre-requisite for understanding of the evolution of the existing plant virus transport systems. This paper represents the first comprehensive review which describes the whole diversity of small membrane MPs and presents the current views on their role in plant virus movement.

    Citation: Sergey Y. Morozov, Andrey G. Solovyev. Small hydrophobic viral proteins involved in intercellular movement of diverse plant virus genomes[J]. AIMS Microbiology, 2020, 6(3): 305-329. doi: 10.3934/microbiol.2020019

    Related Papers:

  • Most plant viruses code for movement proteins (MPs) targeting plasmodesmata to enable cell-to-cell and systemic spread in infected plants. Small membrane-embedded MPs have been first identified in two viral transport gene modules, triple gene block (TGB) coding for an RNA-binding helicase TGB1 and two small hydrophobic proteins TGB2 and TGB3 and double gene block (DGB) encoding two small polypeptides representing an RNA-binding protein and a membrane protein. These findings indicated that movement gene modules composed of two or more cistrons may encode the nucleic acid-binding protein and at least one membrane-bound movement protein. The same rule was revealed for small DNA-containing plant viruses, namely, viruses belonging to genus Mastrevirus (family Geminiviridae) and the family Nanoviridae. In multi-component transport modules the nucleic acid-binding MP can be viral capsid protein(s), as in RNA-containing viruses of the families Closteroviridae and Potyviridae. However, membrane proteins are always found among MPs of these multicomponent viral transport systems. Moreover, it was found that small membrane MPs encoded by many viruses can be involved in coupling viral replication and cell-to-cell movement. Currently, the studies of evolutionary origin and functioning of small membrane MPs is regarded as an important pre-requisite for understanding of the evolution of the existing plant virus transport systems. This paper represents the first comprehensive review which describes the whole diversity of small membrane MPs and presents the current views on their role in plant virus movement.


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    Acknowledgment



    The authors are grateful for the funding received from the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grant 20-04-00456).

    Conflict of Interest



    The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

    Author Contributions



    Both authors have made a substantial, direct, and intellectual contribution to the work, and approved it for publication.

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