Export file:

Format

  • RIS(for EndNote,Reference Manager,ProCite)
  • BibTex
  • Text

Content

  • Citation Only
  • Citation and Abstract

Exploring the human-animal interface of Ebola virus disease outbreaks

1 Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USA
2 Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan

Special Issues: Inverse problems in the natural and social sciences

Whereas the prevention and treatment of Ebola virus disease (EVD) have been well studied after the 2013–16 outbreak in West Africa, the emergence of human outbreaks and their mechanisms have yet to be explored in detail. In particular, it has yet to be clarified whether the emergence records offer any theoretical insight into the changing interface between humans and animal reservoirs. Here we explore the epidemiological record of emergence, investigating predominant causes of the introduction to the human population, their characteristics, and frequencies. We retrieved data of every outbreak that can be traced back to a single zoonotic spillover. Through statistical analysis, we have shown that (i) the leading cause of emergence was eating and hunting habits, (ii) primates act as the main source of zoonotic spillover, and (iii) Zaire ebolavirus is the most virulent type. Moreover, the trend of emergence was demonstrated not to be a Poisson process, indicating that some unknown, underlying, non-random mechanisms are likely to govern the spillover event. In the Democratic Republic of Congo, an increasing emergence trend was favored compared with a purely random emergence model. Outbreak event data and their causative viruses should be explored biologically and epidemiologically to possibly predict future outbreak events.
  Figure/Table
  Supplementary
  Article Metrics

References

1. World Health Organization, Ebola Haemorrhagic Fever in Sudan, 1976, B. World Health Organ., 56 (1978), 247.

2. A. S. Khan, F. K. Tshioko, D. L. Heymann, et al., The reemergence of Ebola hemorrhagic fever, Democratic Republic of the Congo, 1995, J. Infect. Dis., 179 (1999), S76–S86.

3. J. S. Towner, T. K. Sealy, M. L. Khristova, et al., Newly discovered Ebola virus associated with hemorrhagic fever outbreak in Uganda, PLoS Pathog., 4 (2008), e1000212.

4. World Health Organization, End of Ebola outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2009. Available from: http://www.who.int/csr/don/2009_02_17/en/.

5. J. H. Kuhn, A compendium of 40 years of epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory studies. Arch. Biol., 20 (2008), S13–S360.

6. A. A. Arata and B. Johnson, Approaches toward studies on potential reservoirs of viral haemorrhagic fever in southern Sudan (1977). Available from: http://www.enivd.de/EBOLA/ebola-33.htm.

7. J. G. Breman, K. M. Johnson, G. van der Groen, et al., A search for Ebola virus in animals in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Cameroon: Ecologic, virologic, and serologic surveys, 1979–1980, J. Infect. Dis., 179 (1999), S139–S147.

8. World Health Organization, Ebola Virus Disease, 2018. Available from: http://www.who.int/en/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/ebola-virus-disease.

9. World Health Organization, Ebola Haemorrhagic Fever in Zaire, 1976, B. World Health Organ., 56 (1978), 271.

10. R. C. Baron, J. B. McCormick and O. A. Zubeir, Ebola Virus Disease in southern Sudan: Hospital dissemination and intrafamilial spread, B. World Health Organ., 61 (1983), 997.

11. H. Feldmann, V. Wahl-Jensen, S. M. Jones, et al., Ebola virus ecology: A continuing mystery, Trends Microbiol., 12 (2004), 433–437.

12. A. Georges, E. M. Leroy, A. A. Renaut, et al., Ebola hemorrhagic fever outbreaks in Gabon, 1994-1997: Epidemiologic and health control issues, J. Infect. Dis., 179 (1999), S65–S75.

13. E. M. Leroy, A. Epelboin, V. Mondonge, et al., Human Ebola outbreak resulting from direct exposure to fruit bats in Luebo, Democratic Republic of Congo, 2007, Vector-Borne Zoonot., 9 (2009), 723–728.

14. S. I. Okware, F. G. Omaswa, S. Zaramba, et al., An outbreak of Ebola in Uganda, Trop. Med. Int. Health, 7 (2002), 1068–1075.

15. R. Biek, P. D. Walsh, E. M. Leroy, et al., Recent common ancestry of Ebola Zaire virus found in a bat reservoir, PLoS Pathog., 2 (2006), e90.

16. E. M. Leroy, P. Rouquet, P. Formenty, et al., Multiple Ebola virus transmission events and rapid decline of central African wildlife, Science, 303 (2004), 387–390.

17. Outbreak(s) of Ebola hemorrhagic fever, Congo and Gabon, October 2001 to July 2002, Can. Commun. Dis. Rep., 29 (2003), 129.

18. Outbreak of Ebola haemorrhagic fever in Yambio, South Sudan, April–June 2004, Wkly. Epidemiol. Rec., 80 (2005), 370.

19. D. Nkoghe, M. L. Kone, A. Yada, et al., A limited outbreak of Ebola haemorrhagic fever in Etoumbi, Republic of Congo, 2005, Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 105 (2011), 466–472.

20. G. Grard, R. Biek, J. M. Tamfum, et al., Emergence of divergent Zaire Ebola virus strains in Democratic Republic of the Congo in 2007 and 2008, J. Infect. Dis., 204 (2011), S776–S784.

21. C. G. Albariño, T. Shoemaker, M. L. Khristova, et al., Genomic analysis of filoviruses associated with four viral hemorrhagic fever outbreaks in Uganda and the Democratic Republic of the Congo in 2012, Virology, 442 (2013), 97–100.

22. T. Shoemaker, A. MacNeil, S. Balinandi, et al., Reemerging Sudan Ebola virus disease in Uganda, 2011, Emerg. Infect. Dis., 18 (2012), 1480.

23. D. M. Pigott, N. Golding, A. Mylne, et al., Mapping the zoonotic niche of Ebola Virus Disease in Africa, eLife, 3 (2014), e04395.

24. S. K. Gire, A. Goba, K. G. Andersen, et al., Genomic surveillance elucidates Ebola virus origin and transmission during the 2014 outbreak, Science, 345 (2014), 1369–1372.

25. A. Marí Saéz, S. Weiss, K. Nowak, et al., Investigating the zoonotic origin of the West African Ebola epidemic, EMBO Mol. Med., 7 (2015), 17–23.

26. G. D. Maganga, J. Kapetshi, N. Berthet, et al., Ebola virus disease in the Democratic Republic of Congo, New Engl. J. Med., 371 (2014), 2083–2091.

27. World Health Organization, Ebola virus disease-Democratic Republic of Congo, External Situation Report 1, 2017. Available from: http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/255419/EbolaDRC-1552017-eng.pdf;jsessionid=91F71A1289A9293492357BD21FF88E5F?sequence=1.

28. K. Kupferschmidt, Could pigs be involved in Congo's new Ebola outbreak? Science, (2017).

29. A. Barry, S. Ahuka-Mundeke, Y. Ali Ahmed, et al., Outbreak of Ebola virus disease in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, April–May, 2018: An epidemiological study, Lancet, 392 (2018), 213–221.

30. World Health Organization, Ebola virus disease-Democratic Republic of Congo, External Situation Report 3, 2018. Available from: https://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/SITREP-EVD-DRC-20180518.pdf.

31. World Health Organization, Ebola virus disease-Democratic Republic of Congo, Disease outbreaks news: update, 2018. Available from: http://www.who.int/csr/don/29-november-2018-ebola-drc/en/.

32. E. M. Hill, M. J. Tildesley and T. House, Evidence for history-dependence of influenza pandemic emergence, Sci. Rep., 7 (2017), 43623.

33. R Core Team, R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing: Vienna, Austria, 2017. https://www.R-project.org.

34. D. L. Heymann, J. S. Weisfeld, P. A. Webb, et al., Ebola hemorrhagic fever: Tandala, Zaire, 1977–1978, J. Infect. Dis., 142 (1980), 372–376.

35. G. Chowell and H. Nishiura, Transmission dynamics and control of Ebola virus disease (EVD): a review, BMC Med., 12 (2014), 196.

36. G. Chowell and H. Nishiura, Characterizing the transmission dynamics and control of Ebola virus disease, PLoS Biol., 13 (2015), e1002057.

37. T. House, Epidemiological dynamics of Ebola outbreaks, eLife, 3 (2014), e03908.

38. M. R. Edwards, H. Liu, R. S. Shabman, et al., Conservation of structure and immune antagonist functions of filoviral VP35 homologs present in microbat genomes, Cell Rep., 24 (2018), 861–872.

39. J. L. Heeney, Hidden reservoirs, Nature, 527 (2015), 453.

40. S. Kumar, G. Stecher and K. Tamura, MEGA7: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis version 7.0 for bigger datasets, Mol. Biol. Evol., 33 (2016), 1870–1874.

41. S. A. J. Leendertz, J. F. Gogarten, A. Düx, et al., Assessing the evidence supporting fruit bats as the primary reservoirs for Ebola viruses, Ecohealth, 13 (2016), 18.

42. E. M. Leroy, B. Kumulungui, X. Pourrut, et al., Fruit bats as reservoirs of Ebola virus, Nature, 438 (2005), 575–576.

43. R. Swanepoel, P. A. Leman, F. J. Burt, et al., Experimental inoculation of plants and animals with Ebola virus, Emerg. Infect. Dis., 2 (1996), 321.

44. T. J. Wittmann, R. Biek, A. Hassanin, et al., Isolates of Zaire ebolavirus from wild apes reveal genetic lineage and recombinants, P. Natl. A. Sci. USA, 104 (2007), 17123–17127.

45. J. O. Lloyd-Smith, D. George, K. M. Pepin, et al., Epidemic dynamics at the human-animal interface, Science, New Series, 326 (2009), 1362–367.

46. S. Merler, M. Ajelli, L. Fumanelli, et al., Spatiotemporal spread of the 2014 outbreak of Ebola virus disease in Liberia and the effectiveness of non-pharmaceutical interventions: A computational modelling analysis, Lancet Infect. Dis., 15 (2015), 204–211.

47. C. L. Althaus, Ebola: The real lessons from HIV scale-up, Lancet Infect. Dis., 15 (2015), 507–508.

48. M. S. Y. Lau, B. D. Dalziel, S. Funk, et al., Spatial and temporal dynamics of superspreading events in the 2014–2015 West Africa Ebola epidemic, P. Natl. A. Sci. USA, 114 (2017), 2337–2342.

49. Y. H. Hsieh, Temporal Course of 2014 Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) Outbreak in West Africa Elucidated through Morbidity and Mortality Data: A Tale of Three Countries, PLoS One, 10 (2015), e0140810.

50. R. T. D. Emond, B. Evans, E. T. W. Bowen, et al., A case of Ebola virus infection, Brit. Med. J., 2 (1977), 541–544.

51. I. V. Borisevich, V. A. Markin, I. V. Firsova, et al., Hemorrhagic (Marburg, Ebola, Lassa, and Bolivian) fevers: Epidemiology, clinical pictures, and treatment, Vop. Virusol., 51 (2006), 8–16.

52. L. A. Akinfeyeva, O. I. Aksyonova, I. V. Vasilyevich, et al., A case of Ebola hemorrhagic fever, Infektsionnye Bolezni, 3 (2005), 85–88.

© 2019 the Author(s), licensee AIMS Press. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licese (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0)

Download full text in PDF

Export Citation

Article outline

Show full outline
Copyright © AIMS Press All Rights Reserved