Export file:


  • RIS(for EndNote,Reference Manager,ProCite)
  • BibTex
  • Text


  • Citation Only
  • Citation and Abstract

Basalt, glass and carbon fibers and their fiber reinforced polymer composites under thermal and mechanical load

1 NuCellSys GmbH, Neue Strasse 95, D-73230 Kirchheim u. Teck, Germany
2 Institute for Manufacturing Technologies of Ceramic Components and Composites (IFKB), University of Stuttgart, Allmandring 7B, D-70569 Stuttgart, Germany

Topical Section: Advanced composites

In order to enhance customer acceptance cost optimization is essential regarding future drive trains, like the fuel cell drive. Regarding the pressure vessels, which are needed to store the hydrogen, carbon fibers are the main cost driver. Therefore basalt fibers were identified as a cost effective alternative in previous studies. As fire load is one of the crucial tests in pressure vessel examination, the authors focused on the effect of thermal load on the mechanical properties of basalt fibers and their composites in this work. Therefor tensile tests were performed on impregnated basalt rovings and competing E-glass and carbon rovings after exposition to high temperatures between 100 and 600 °C. Furthermore residual tensile strength of unidirectional basalt-, E-glass-, and carbon reinforced polymers was tested after one-sided thermal load. Both experiments showed that basalt had higher tensile strength at low temperatures or shorter exposition times compared to glass. Yet degradation was more severe and strength was lower at higher temperatures or longer exposition times.
  Article Metrics

Keywords polymer matrix composites (PMC); Basalt fibers; Basalt fiber composites; thermomechanical load; filament winding

Citation: Eduard Kessler, Rainer Gadow, Jona Straub. Basalt, glass and carbon fibers and their fiber reinforced polymer composites under thermal and mechanical load. AIMS Materials Science, 2016, 3(4): 1561-1576. doi: 10.3934/matersci.2016.4.1561


  • 1. Regulation (EC) no. 443/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council. Off J Eur Union.
  • 2. Mori D, Hirose K (2009) Recent challenges of hydrogen storage technologies for fuel cell vehicles. Int J Hydrogen Energy 34: 4569–4574.
  • 3. Hua TQ, Ahluwalia RK, Peng JK, et al. (2011) Technical assessment of compressed hydrogen storage tank systems for automotive applications. Int J Hydrogen Energy 36: 3037–3049.
  • 4. Kessler E, Gadow R, Weichand P (2015) Investigation of mechanical properties of filament wound unidirectional basalt fiber reinforced polymers for automotive and pressure vessel application. ICCM 20, 20th International Conference on Composite Materials, Copenhagen, Denmark.
  • 5. Gambone LR, Wong JY (2007) Fire protection strategy for compressed hydrogen-powered vehicles. 2nd International Conference on Hydrogen Safety, San Sebastian, Spain.
  • 6. Ruban S, Heudier L, Jamois D, et al. (2012) Fire risk on high-pressure full composite cylinders for automotive applications. Int J Hydrogen Energy 37: 17630–17638.
  • 7. Artemenko SE (2003) Polymer composite materials made from carbon, basalt and glass fibres. Structure and properties. Fibre Chem 35: 226–229.
  • 8. Subramanian RV, Austin HF (1980) Silane coupling agents in basalt-reinforced polyester composites. Int J Adhes Adhes 1: 50–54.
  • 9. Deak T, Czigany T (2009) Chemical composition and mechanical properties of basalt and glass fibers: a comparison. Text Res J 79: 645–651.
  • 10. Gadow R, Weichand P (2014) Novel intermediate temperature ceramic composites, materials and processing for siloxane based basalt fiber composites. Key Eng Mater 611: 382–390.
  • 11. Yin Y, Binner JGP, Cross TE, et al. (1994) The oxidation behaviour of carbon fibres. J Mater Sci 29: 2250–2254.
  • 12. Feih S, Mouritz AP, Mathys Z, et al. (2007) Tensile strength modeling of glass fiber-polymer composites in fire. J Compos Mater 41: 2387–2410.
  • 13. Feih S, Manatpon K, Mathys Z, et al. (2009) Strength degradation of glass fibers at high temperatures. J Mater Sci 44: 392–400.
  • 14. Feih S, Boiocchi E, Kandare E, et al. (2009) Strength degradation of glass and carbon fibres at high temperature. ICCM 17, 17th International Conference on Composite Materials, Edinburgh, Scotland.
  • 15. Jenkins PG, Riopedre-Méndez S, Sáez-Rodríguez E, et al. (2015) Investigation of the strength of thermally conditioned basalt and E-glass fibres. ICCM 20, 20th International Conference on Composite Materials, Copenhagen, Denmark.
  • 16. Bhat T, Chevali V, Liu X, et al. (2015) Fire structural resistance of basalt fibre composite. Compos Part A-Appl S 71: 107–115.
  • 17. Morozov NN, Bakunov VS, Morozov EN, et al. (2001) Materials based on basalts from the European north of Russia. Glass Ceram 58: 100–104.
  • 18. Sim J, Park C, Moon DY (2005) Characteristics of basalt fiber as a strengthening material for concrete structures. Compos Part B-Eng 36: 504–512.
  • 19. German Institute for Standardization DIN 65 382 (1988) Aerospace; Reinforcement fibers for plastics; Tensile test of impregnated yarn test specimens.
  • 20. International Organization for Standardization ISO 527-5 (2010) Plastics—Determination of tensile properties. Part 5: Test conditions for unidirectional fibre-reinforced plastic composites.
  • 21. Feih S, Mouritz AP (2012) Tensile properties of carbon fibres and carbon fibre-polymer composites in fire. Compos Part A-Appl S 43: 765–772.
  • 22. Incotelogy GmbH (2015) Basalt rovings technical data sheet.
  • 23. Makhova MF (1968) Crystallization of basalt fibers. Glass Ceram 25: 672–674.
  • 24. Kessler E, Gadow R, Semmler C (2016) Apparent hoop tensile strength of basalt fiber and hybrid fiber reinforced polymers. Proceedings SAMPE Technical Conference, Long Beach, USA.


This article has been cited by

  • 1. Fabrizio Sarasini, Jacopo Tirillò, Maria Carolina Seghini, Influence of thermal conditioning on tensile behaviour of single basalt fibres, Composites Part B: Engineering, 2017, 10.1016/j.compositesb.2017.08.014
  • 2. Zdeněk Chlup, Martin Černý, Adam Strachota, Hynek Hadraba, Petr Kácha, Martina Halasová, Effect of the exposition temperature on the behaviour of partially pyrolysed hybrid basalt fibre composites, Composites Part B: Engineering, 2018, 10.1016/j.compositesb.2018.04.021
  • 3. S. Mahesh Babu, M. Venkateswara Rao, Effect of basalt powder on mechanical properties and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis of hybrid epoxy composites reinforced with glass fiber, Journal of the Chinese Advanced Materials Society, 2018, 1, 10.1080/22243682.2018.1470030
  • 4. Stanisław Kuciel, Paulina Romańska, Hybrid Composites of Polylactide with Basalt and Carbon Fibers and Their Thermal Treatment, Materials, 2018, 12, 1, 95, 10.3390/ma12010095
  • 5. Guijun Yang, Mira Park, Soo-Jin Park, Recent progresses of fabrication and characterization of fibers-reinforced composites: A review, Composites Communications, 2019, 10.1016/j.coco.2019.05.004
  • 6. Muhammad Yasir, Norlaili Amir, Faiz Ahmad, Sami Ullah, Maude Jimenez, Synergistic effect of basalt fiber on the thermal properties of intumescent fire retardant coating, Materials Today: Proceedings, 2019, 16, 2030, 10.1016/j.matpr.2019.06.088
  • 7. Sergey I. Gutnikov, Evgeniya S. Zhukovskaya, Sergey S. Popov, Bogdan I. Lazoryak, Correlation of the chemical composition, structure and mechanical properties of basalt continuous fibers, AIMS Materials Science, 2019, 6, 5, 806, 10.3934/matersci.2019.5.806
  • 9. Ahmed Elmahdy, Patricia Verleysen, Mechanical behavior of basalt and glass textile composites at high strain rates: A comparison, Polymer Testing, 2020, 81, 106224, 10.1016/j.polymertesting.2019.106224
  • 10. Zdeněk Chlup, Martin Černý, Petr Kácha, Hynek Hadraba, Adam Strachota, Fracture resistance of partially pyrolysed polysiloxane preceramic polymer matrix composites reinforced by unidirectional basalt fibres, Journal of the European Ceramic Society, 2020, 10.1016/j.jeurceramsoc.2020.01.047
  • 11. M.P. Lebedev, O.V. Startsev, A.K. Kychkin, The effects of aggressive environments on the mechanical properties of basalt plastics, Heliyon, 2020, 6, 3, e03481, 10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e03481
  • 12. Ahmed Elmahdy, Patricia Verleysen, Comparison between the mechanical behavior of woven basalt and glass epoxy composites at high strain rates, Materials Today: Proceedings, 2020, 10.1016/j.matpr.2020.02.284
  • 13. Azadeh Mirabedini, Andrew Ang, Mostafa Nikzad, Bronwyn Fox, Kin-Tak Lau, Nishar Hameed, Evolving Strategies for Producing Multiscale Graphene-Enhanced Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Composites for Smart Structural Applications, Advanced Science, 2020, 1903501, 10.1002/advs.201903501
  • 14. Josef Vosáhlo, Martina Ryvolová, Basalt Reinforced Plastic - Development and Modeling of Part, Materials Science Forum, 2020, 994, 115, 10.4028/www.scientific.net/MSF.994.115
  • 15. George Karalis, Kyriaki Tsirka, Lazaros Tzounis, Christos Mytafides, Lampros Koutsotolis, Alkiviadis S. Paipetis, Epoxy/Glass Fiber Nanostructured p- and n-Type Thermoelectric Enabled Model Composite Interphases, Applied Sciences, 2020, 10, 15, 5352, 10.3390/app10155352

Reader Comments

your name: *   your email: *  

Copyright Info: 2016, Eduard Kessler, et al., licensee AIMS Press. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licese (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0)

Download full text in PDF

Export Citation

Copyright © AIMS Press All Rights Reserved