Export file:

Format

  • RIS(for EndNote,Reference Manager,ProCite)
  • BibTex
  • Text

Content

  • Citation Only
  • Citation and Abstract

Penetration resistance and ballistic-impact behavior of Ti/TiAl3 metal/intermetallic laminated composites (MILCs): A computational investigation

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Clemson University, Clemson SC 29634, USA

Topical Section: Advanced composites

A comprehensive computational engineering analysis is carried out in order to assess suitability of the Ti/TiAl3 metal/intermetallic laminated composites (MILCs) for use in both structural and add-on armor applications. This class of composite materials consists of alternating sub-millimeter thick layers of Ti (the ductile and tough constituent) and TiAl3 (the stiff and hard constituent). In recent years, this class of materials has been investigated for potential use in light-armor applications as a replacement for the traditional metallic or polymer-matrix composite materials. Within the computational analysis, an account is given to differing functional requirements for candidate materials when used in structural and add-on ballistic armor. The analysis employed is of a transient, nonlinear-dynamics, finite-element character, and the problem investigated involves normal impact (i.e. under zero obliquity angle) of a Ti/TiAl3 MILC target plate, over a range of incident velocities, by a fragment simulating projectile (FSP). This type of analysis can provide more direct information regarding the ballistic limit of the subject armor material, as well as help with the identification of the nature and the efficacy of various FSP material-deformation/erosion and kinetic-energy absorption/dissipation phenomena and processes. The results obtained clearly revealed that Ti/TiAl3 MILCs are more suitable for use in add-on ballistic, than in structural armor applications.
  Figure/Table
  Supplementary
  Article Metrics

References

1. Grujicic M, Pandurangan B, d’Entremont BP, et al. (2012) The role of adhesive in the ballistic/structural performance of ceramic/polymer-matrix composite hybrid armor. Mater Des 41: 380–393.    

2. Grujicic M, Pandurangan B, Zecevic U, et al. (2007) Ballistic performance of alumina/S-2 glass-reinforced polymer-matrix composite hybrid lightweight armor against armor piercing (AP) and non-AP projectiles. Multidisc Model Mater Struct 3: 287–312.    

3. Medvedovski E (2002) Alumina ceramics for ballistic protection. Am Ceram Soc Bull 81: 27–32.

4. Aghajanian MK, Morgan BN, Singh JR, et al. (2001) A new family of reaction bonded ceramics for armor applications. In: Proceedings of PAC RIM 4, Maui. Hawaii, Paper No. PAC6-H-04-2001.

5. Grujicic M, Glomski PS, He T, et al. (2009) Material modeling and ballistic-resistance analysis of armor-grade composites reinforced with high-performance fibers. J Mater Eng Perform 18: 1169–1182.    

6. Grujicic M, Pandurangan B, Snipes JS, et al. (2013) Multi-length scale enriched continuum-level material model for Kevlar®-fiber reinforced polymer-matrix composites. J Mater Eng Perform 22: 681–695.    

7. Grujicic M, Bell WC, Biggers SB, et al. (2008) Enhancement of the ballistic-protection performance of E-glass reinforced poly-vinyl-ester-epoxy composite armor via the use of a carbon-nanotube forest-mat strike face. J Mater: Des Appl 222: 15–28.

8. Grujicic M, Bell WC, Pandurangan B, et al. (2011) Computational investigation of structured shocks in Al/SiC-particulates metal matrix composites. Multidisc Model Mater Struct 7: 469–497.    

9. Cheeseman BA, Jensen R, Hopped C (2005), Protecting the Future Force: Advanced Materials and Analysis Enable Robust Composite Armor. The AMPTIAC Quarterly, 8: 37–43.

10. Vecchio KS (2005) Synthetic multifunctional metallic-intermetallic laminate composites. J Metals 57: 25–31.

11. Price RD, Jiang F, Kulin RM, et al. (2011) Effects of ductile phase volume fraction on the mechanical properties of Ti–Al3Ti metal-intermetallic laminate (MIL) composites. Mater Sci Eng A 528: 3134–3146.    

12. Yang C, Guo C, Zhu S, et al. (2015) Fracture behavior of Ti/Al3Ti metal-intermetallic laminate (MIL) composite under dynamic loading. Mater Sci Eng A 637: 235–242.    

13. Lazurenko DV, Mali VI, Bataev IA, et al. (2015) Metal-intermetallic laminate Ti-Al3Ti composites produced by spark plasma sintering of titanium and aluminum foils enclosed in titanium shells. Metall Mater Trans A 46A: 4326–4334.

14. Cao Y, Zhu S, Guo C, et al. (2015) Numerical investigation of the ballistic performance of metal-intermetallic laminate composites. Adv Compos Mater 22: 437–456.    

15. Yu H, Lu C, Tieu AK, et al. (2016) Annealing effect on microstructure and mechanical properties of Al/Ti/Al laminate sheets. Mater Sci Eng A 20: 195–204.

16. Harach DJ (2000) Processing, properties, and ballistic performance of Ti-Al3Ti Metal-Intermetallic Laminate (MIL) composites. PhD Thesis, University of California, San Diego, CA.

17. Zelepugin S, Mali V, Zelepugin A, et al. (2012), Failure of metallic-intermetallic laminate composites under dynamic loading. AIP Conference Proceedings 1426: 1101.

18. ABAQUS Version 6.13, User Documentation, Dassault Systèmes, 2013.

19. Grujicic M, d’Entremont BP, Pandurangan B, et al. (2012) A study of the blast-induced brain white-matter damage and the associated diffuse axonal injury. Multidisc Model Mater Struct 8: 213–245.    

20. Grujicic M, Bell WC, Pandurangan B, et al. (2012) Inclusion of material nonlinearity and inelasticity into a continuum-level material model for soda-lime glass. Mater Des 35: 144–155.    

21. Grujicic M, Bell WC, Pandurangan B, et al. (2012) Effect of the tin- vs. air-side plate-glass orientation on the impact response and penetration resistance of a laminated transparent-armor structure. J Mater Des Appl 226: 119–143.

22. Grujicic M, Pandurangan B, Bell WC, et al. (2012) Shock-wave attenuation and energy-dissipation potential of granular materials. J Mater Eng Perform 21: 167–179.    

23. Grujicic M, Pandurangan B, Bell WC, et al. (2011) Molecular-level simulations of shock generation and propagation in polyurea. Mater Sci Eng A 528: 3799–3808.    

24. Johnson GR, Cook WH (1983) A constitutive model and data for metals subjected to large strains, high strain rates and high temperatures. In: Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Ballistics, the Netherlands, Arlington, VA: American Defense Preparedness Association.

25. AUTODYN-2D and 3D, Version 6.1, User Documentation, Century Dynamics Inc., 2006.

26. Johnson GR, Holmquist TJ (1994) An improved computational constitutive model for brittle materials, in AIP Conference Proceedings, Colorado Springs, CO 1993, American Institute of Physics, Melville, NY, 309: 981–984.

27. Li T, Grignon F, Benson D, et al. (2004) Modeling the elastic properties and damage evolution in Ti–Al3Ti metal–intermetallic laminate (MIL) composites. Mater Sci Eng A 374: 10–26.    

28. Needleman A (1987) A continuum model for void nucleation by inclusion debonding. J Appl Mech 54: 525–531.    

29. Socrate S (1995) Mechanics of microvoid nucleation and growth in high-strength metastable austenitic steels. PhD Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA.

30. Grujicic M, Dang P (1996) Atomic-scale analysis of martensitic transformation in titanium with vanadium – Part I: Verification of the EAM potential. Mater Sci Eng A 205: 139–152.    

31. Dang P, Grujicic M (1997) Transformation toughening in the Gamma TiAl/Beta Ti-V system – Part II: A molecular dynamics analysis. J Mater Sci 32: 4875–4887.    

32. Grujicic M, Olson GB, Owen WS (1985) Mobility of the β1-γ1’ martensitic interface in Cu-Al-Ni. I. Experimental measurements. Metall Trans A 16: 1723–1734.

33. Grujicic M, Olson GB, Owen WS (1985) Mobility of the β1-γ1’ martensitic interface in Cu-Al-Ni. II. Model calculations. Metall Trans A 16: 1735–1744.

34. Grujicic M, Arakere G, Yen C-F, et al. (2011) Computational investigation of hardness evolution during friction-stir welding of AA5083 and AA2139 aluminum alloys. J Mater Eng Perform 20: 1097–1108.    

35. Grujicic M, Ramaswami S, Snipes JS, et al. (2013) Multi-physics modeling and simulations of MIL A46100 armor-grade martensitic steel gas metal arc welding process. J Mater Eng Perform 22: 2950–2969.    

Copyright Info: © 2016, S. Ramaswami, et al., licensee AIMS Press. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licese (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0)

Download full text in PDF

Export Citation

Article outline

Show full outline
Copyright © AIMS Press All Rights Reserved