Export file:


  • RIS(for EndNote,Reference Manager,ProCite)
  • BibTex
  • Text


  • Citation Only
  • Citation and Abstract

Synthesis and properties of SiNx coatings as stable fluorescent markers on vertically aligned carbon nanofibers

1 Materials Science and Engineering Department, North Carolina State University, NC27695, USA;
2 Measurement Sciences and Systems Engineering Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6006, USA;
3 Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6488, USA;
4 University of the District of Columbia, Washington, DC 20008, USA;
5 Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831, USA

Special Issue: Materials by Design

The growth of vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNFs) in a catalytic dc ammonia/acetylene plasma process on silicon substrates is often accompanied by sidewall deposition of material that contains predominantly Si and N. In fluorescent microscopy experiments, whereby VACNFs are interfaced to cell and tissue cultures for a variety of applications, it was observed that this material is broadly fluorescent. In this paper, we provide insight into nature of these silicon/nitrogen in-situ coatings. We propose a potential mechanism for deposition of SiNx coating on the sidewalls of VACNFs during PECVD synthesis and explore the origin of the coating's fluorescence. It is most likely that the substrate reacts with process gases similar to reactive sputtering and chemical vapor deposition (CVD), forming silane and other silicon bearing compounds prior to isotropic deposition as a SiNx coating onto the VACNFs. The formation of Sinanoclusters (NCs) is also implicated due to a combination of strong fluorescence and elemental analysis of the samples. These broadly luminescent fibers can prove useful as registry markers in fluorescent cellular studies and for tagging and tracing applications.
  Article Metrics


1. McKnight TE, Melechko AV, Griffin GD, et al. (2003) Intracellular integration of synthetic nanostructures with viable cells for controlled biochemical manipulation. Nanotechnology 14 (5): 551-556.

2. Guillorn MA, Melechko AV, Merkulov VI, et al. (2001) Operation of a gated field emitter using an individual carbon nanofiber cathode. Appl Phys Lett 79(21): 3506-3508.

3. Melechko AV, McKnight TE, Hensley DK, et al. (2003) Simpson, Large-scale synthesis of arrays of high-aspect-ratio rigid vertically aligned carbon nanofibres. Nanotechnology 14(9):1029-1035.

4. Teo KBK, Chhowalla M, Amaratunga GAJ, et al. (2002) Characterization of plasmaenhanced chemical vapor deposition carbon nanotubes by Auger electron spectroscopy. J Vac Sci Technol B 20(1): 116-121.

5. Yang X, Guillorn MA, Austin D, et al. (2003) Fabrication and Characterization of Carbon Nanofiber-Based Vertically Integrated Schottky Barrier Junction Diodes. Nano Lett 3(12):1751-1755.

6. Pearce RC, Railsback JG, Anderson BD, et al. (2013) Transfer of Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanofibers to Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) While Maintaining their Alignment and Impalefection Functionality. Acs Appl Mater Interfaces 5: 878-882.    

7. McKnight TE, Melechko AV, Austin DW, et al. (2004) Microarrays of vertically-aligned carbon nanofiber electrodes in an open fluidic channel. J Phys Chem B 108(22): 7115-7125.

8. Shi JW, Xu F, Zhou PH, et al. (2013) Refined nano-textured surface coupled with SiNx, layer on the improved photovoltaic properties of multi-crystalline silicon solar cells. Solid-State Electron 85: 23-27.    

9. Xiao SQ, Xu S, Ostrikov K, (2014) Low-temperature plasma processing for Si photovoltaics. Mat Sci Eng R 78: 1-29.    

10. Ostrikov K, Neyts EC, Meyyappan M, (2013) Plasma nanoscience: from nano-solids in plasmas to nano-plasmas in solids. Adv Phys 62(2): 113-224.

11. McKnight TE, Melechko AV, Hensley DK, (2004) Tracking gene expression after DNA delivery using spatially indexed nanofiber Arrays. Nano Lett 4(7): 1213-1219.

12. Melechko AV, Desikan R, McKnight TE, et al. (2009) Synthesis of vertically aligned carbon nanofibres for interfacing with live systems. J Phys D Appl Phys 42(19): 193001.

13.Melechko AV, Klein KL, Fowlkes JD, et al. (2007) Simpson, Control of carbon nanostructure: From nanofiber toward nanotube and back. J Appl Phys 102(7): 074314-7.

14. Chhowalla M, Teo KBK, Ducati C, et al. (2001) Growth process conditions of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. J Appl Phys90(10): 5308-5317.

15. Arumugam PU, Chen H, Siddiqui S, et al. (2009) Wafer-scale fabrication of patterned carbon nanofiber nanoelectrode arrays: A route for development of multiplexed, ultrasensitive disposable biosensors. Biosens Bioelectron 24(9): 2818-2824.

16. Serikawa T, Okamoto A, (1984) Properties of Magnetron–Sputtered Silicon Nitride Films. J Electrochem Soc 131(12):

17. Benami A, Santana G, Monroy BM, et al. (2007) Visible photoluminescence from silicon nanoclusters embedded in silicon nitride films prepared by remote plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Physica E 38: 148-151.    

18. Benami A, Santana G, Ortiz A, et al. (2007) Strong white and blue photoluminescence from silicon nanocrystals in SiN x grown by remote PECVD using SiCl 4/NH 3. Nanotechnology18(15): 155704.

19. Bommali RK, Singh SP, Rai S, et al. (2012) Excitation dependent photoluminescence study of Si-rich a-SiNx: H thin films. J Appl Phys 112(12): 123518-123518-

20. Brewer A, von Haeften K, (2009) In situ passivation and blue luminescence of silicon clusters using a cluster beam/H2O codeposition production method. Appl Phys Lett 94(26): 261102-261102-

21. Chopra S, Gupta RP, Joshi BC, et al. (2009) Study of hydrogen passivation in SiNx:H films using Fourier transform infrared and photoluminescence spectroscopy. Mater Sci P 27(2):559-568.

22. Kim BH, Cho CH, Kim TW, et al. (2005) Photoluminescence of silicon quantum dots in silicon nitride grown by NH3 and SIH4. Appl Phys Lett 86(9): 091908.

23. Kim TY, Park NM, Kim KH, et al. (2004) Quantum confinement effect of silicon nanocrystals in situ grown in silicon nitride films. Appl Phys Lett 85(22): 5355-5357.

24. Kistner J, Chen X, Weng Y, et al. (2011) Photoluminescence from silicon nitride-no quantum effect. J Appl Phys 110: 023520.    

25. Lopez-Suarez A, Fandino J, Monroy BM, et al. (2008) Study of the influence of NH3 flow rates on the structure and photoluminescence of silicon-nitride films with silicon nanoparticles. Physica E 40(10): 3141-3146.

26. Ma K, Feng JY, Zhang ZJ, (2006) Improved photoluminescence of silicon nanocrystals in silicon nitride prepared by ammonia sputtering. Nanotechnology 17(18): 4650.

27. Nguyen PD, Kepaptsoglou DM, Ramasse QM, et al. (2012) Direct observation of quantum confinement of Si nanocrystals in Si-rich nitrides. Phys Rev B 85(8): 085315.

28. Cho CH, Kim BH, Kim TW, et al. (2005) Effect of hydrogen passivation on charge storage in silicon quantum dots embedded in silicon nitride film. Appl Phys Lett 86(14): 143107.

29. Pei Z, Hwang HL, (2003) Formation of silicon nano-dots in luminescent silicon nitride. Appl Surf Sci 212-213: 760-764.

30. Santana G, Monroy BM, Ortiz A, et al. (2006) Influence of the surrounding host in obtaining tunable and strong visible photoluminescence from silicon nanoparticles. Appl Phys Lett88(4): 041916.

31. Wang MH, Li DS, Yuan Z, et al. (2007) Photoluminescence of Si-rich silicon nitride: Defectrelated states and silicon nanoclusters. Appl Phys Lett 90(13): 131903.

32. Hao HL, Wu LK, Shen WZ, et al. (2007) Origin of visible luminescence in hydrogenated amorphous silicon nitride. Appl Phys Lett 91(20): 201922.

34. Hensley DK, Melechko AV, Ericson MN, et al. (2010) Transparent microarrays of vertically aligned carbon nanofibers as a multimodal tissue interface. Biomedical Sciences and Engineering Conference (BSEC).

Copyright Info: © 2014, Anatoli Melechko, et al., licensee AIMS Press. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licese (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0)

Download full text in PDF

Export Citation

Article outline

Show full outline
Copyright © AIMS Press All Rights Reserved