AIMS Geosciences, 2017, 3(2): 284-303. doi: 10.3934/geosci.2017.2.284

Research article

Export file:

Format

  • RIS(for EndNote,Reference Manager,ProCite)
  • BibTex
  • Text

Content

  • Citation Only
  • Citation and Abstract

Historical Quarries, Decay and Petrophysical Properties of Carbonate Stones Used in the Historical Center of Madrid (Spain)

Instituto de Geociencias IGEO (CSIC, UCM) Spanish Research Council CSIC–Complutense University of Madrid UCM. 28040 Madrid, Spain

The carbonate stones that make up the four fountains of the 18th century located in the Paseo del Prado of Madrid (Spain) are studied. The documentary search in historical archives, together with the petrographic, cartographic and paleontological studies permitted to determine that the fountains have been built with dolostone of the Castrojimeno Formation, with gastropods of the Trochactaeon Lamarcki specie of the Santonian (Upper Cretaceous). The historical quarries from which the ashlars have been extracted is located in Redueña Village. The petrophysical properties of this dolostone (effective porosity, bulk density, mercury intrusion porosity, ultrasound wave propagation velocity, micro-roughness and color) have been calculated and compared with Colmenar de Oreja limestone. Each of the four fountains has a circular pylon at the base, a central column that holds a smaller pylon and is topped by a sculpture that serves as a spout. A bomb destroyed three ashlars of the basal pylon, column, small pylon and the sculpture of the SE fountain, during the Spanish Civil War, in 1936. These damaged elements were replaced by other carved limestones from Colmenar de Oreja in 1944. The four sculptures had been replaced in 1996 with resin replicas and the originals are preserved in the San Isidro. Los orígenes de Madrid museum. The study of the petrophysical properties of the sculptures located in the museum allowed us to determine the decay of different stone types. The analysis of micro-roughness was employed to define that the dissolution effect on the sculptures is different between dolostone and limestone. Redueña dolostone is more resistant to dissolution effect than Colmenar de Oreja limestome.
  Figure/Table
  Supplementary
  Article Metrics

References

1. Bednarik M, Moshammer B, Heinrich M, et al. (2014) Engineering geological properties of Leitha Limestone from historical quarries in Burgenland and Styria, Austria. Eng Geol 176: 66-78.    

2. Fort R, Alvarez de Buergo M, Pérez-Monserrat E.M, et al. (2013) Evolution in the use of natural building stone in Madrid, Spain. Q J Eng Geol Hydrogeol 46: 421-429.    

3. Cardell C, Benavente D, Rodríguez-Gordillo J (2008) Weathering of limestone building material by mixed sulfate solutions. Characterization of stone microstructure, reaction products and decay forms. Mater Charact 59: 1371-1385.

4. Sajid M, Coggan J, Arif M, et al. (2016) Petrographic features as an effective indicator for the variation in strength of granites. Eng Geol 202: 44-54.    

5. Yavuz H, Altindag R, Sarac S, et al. (2006) Estimating the index properties of deteriorated carbonate rocks due to freeze-thaw and thermal shock weathering. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 43: 767-775.    

6. Sajid M, Arif M (2015) Reliance of physico–mechanical properties on petrographic characteristics: consequences from the study of Utla granites, north–west Pakistan. Bull Eng Geol Environ 74: 1321-1330.    

7. Vasconcelos G, Lourenҫo PB, Alves CAS, et al. (2008) Ultrasonic evaluation of the physical and mechanical properties of granites. Ultrasonics 48: 453-466.    

8. Martínez-Martínez J, Benavente D, García-del-Cura MA., (2011) Spatial attenuation: The most sensitive ultrasonic parameter for detecting petrographic features and decay processes in carbonate rocks. Eng Geol 119: 84-95.    

9. Vázquez P, Alonso FJ, Carrizo L, et al. (2013) Evaluation of the petrophysical properties of sedimentary building stones in order to establish quality criteria. Constr Build Mater 41: 868-878.    

10. Ordoñez S, Fort R, del Cura MA. (1997) Pore size distribution and the durability of a porous limestone. Q J Eng Geol 30: 221-230.    

11. Benavente D, García del Cura MA, Fort R, et al. (2004) Durability estimation of porous building stones from pore structure and strength. Eng Geol 74: 113-127.    

12. Guydader J, Denis A (1986) Propagation des ondes dans les roches anisotropes sous contrainté evaluation de la qualité des schistes ardoisiers. Bull Eng Geol Environ 33: 49-55.

13. Russel SA (1927) Stone preservation committee report (Appendix I). H.M. Stationary Office, London.

14. Rodríguez C, Sebastián E (1994) Técnicas de análisis del sistema poroso de materiales pétreos ornamentales: usos y limitaciones. Ing Civ 96: 130-142.

15. Sassoni E, Naidu S, Scherer GW (2015) The use of hydroxyapatite as a new inorganic consolidant for damaged carbonate stones. J C Herit 12: 346-355.

16. García O, Malaga K (2012) Definition of the procedure to determine the suitability and durability of an anti-graffiti product for application on cultural heritage porous materials. J C Herit 13: 77-82.    

17. Anders MH, Laubach SE, Scholz CH. (2014) Microfractures: A review. J Struct Geol 69: 377-394.    

18. Fort R, Varas-Muriel MJ, Alvarez de Buergo M, et al. (2015) Colmenar Limestone, Madrid, Spain: considerations for its nomination as a Global Heritage Stone Resource due to its long term durability. Geological Society, London, Special Publications 407: 121-135.    

19. Fort R, Fernandez-Revuelta B, Varas MJ, et al. (2008) Effect of anisotropy on Madrid-region Cretaceous dolostone durability in salt crystallization processes. Mater Constr 58: 161-177.    

20. Cámara B, De los Ríos A, Urizal M, et al. (2011) Characterizing the microbial colonization of a dolostone quarry: implications for stone biodecay and response to biocide treatments. Microb Ecol 62: 299-313.

21. Varas-Muriel MJ, Pérez-Monserrat EM, Vázquez-Calvo C, et al. (2015) Effect of conservation treatments on heritage stone. Characterisation of decay processes in a case study. Constr Build Mater 95: 611-622.

22. Jamshidi A, Reza-Nikudel M, Khamehchiyan M. (2013) Predicting the longterm durability of building stones against freeze–thaw using a decay function model. Cold Reg Sci Technol 92: 29-36.    

23. Cassar J (2016) The Historic and Archaeological Heritage: Pollution and Non-Urban Sites. In: Urban Pollution and Changes to Materials and Building Surfaces, 255-290, P. Brimblecombe (ed). Imperial College Press.

24. Silva B, Aira N, Martínez-Cortizas A, et al. (2009). Chemical composition and origin of black patinas on granite. Sci Total Environ 408: 130-137.    

25. Liu C, Huang S, Kang Y, et al (2015) A prediction model for uniaxial compressive strength of deteriorated rocks due to freeze–thaw. Cold Reg Sci Technol 120: 96-107.    

26. Freire-Lista DM, Fort R., Varas-Muriel MJ (2015) Freeze-thaw fracturing in building granites. Cold Reg Sci Technol 113: 40-51.    

27. Moses C, Robinson D, Barlow J. (2014) Methods for measuring rock surface weathering and erosion: A critical review. Earth–Sci Rev 135: 141-161.

28. Goodchild MF, Ford DC (1971) Analysis of scallop patterns by simulation under controlled conditions. J Geol 79: 52-62.    

29. Urosevic M, Sebastian E, Cardell C. (2013) An experimental study on the influence of surface finishing on the weathering of a building low-porous limestone in coastal environments. Eng Geol 154: 131-141.    

30. Garcia-del-Cura MA, Benavente D, Martinez-Martinez J, et al. (2012) Sedimentary structures and physical properties of travertine and carbonate tufa building stone. Constr Build Mater 28: 456-467.    

31. Compitello MA (2003) Designing Madrid, 1985–1997. Cities 20: 403-411.    

32. Whitehand J.W.R, Gu K. (2010) Conserving urban landscape heritage: A geographical approach. Proced-Soc Behav Sci 2: 6948-6953.    

33. Freire-Lista D.M, Fort R. (2017) Stone provenance and conservation of the Trinitarias Descalzas and San Ildefonso convent, Madrid (Spain). Geo-Conservación (In press).

34. Rukavina M (2015) Archaeological heritage and urban planning in Mérida (Spain), In: Obad Šćitaroci, M. Author, Heritage urbanism: Urban and Spatial Models for Revival and Enhancement of Cultural Heritage. Zagreb: 496-501. ISBN 978-953-8042-10-2.

35. Kronlund D, Lindén M, Smått J.H (2016) A polydimethylsiloxane coating to minimize weathering effects on granite. Constr Build Mater 124: 1051-1058.    

36. Casal Porto M, Silva Hermo BM, Delgado Rodrigues J (1991) Agents and forms of weathering in granitic rocks used in monuments Science, Technology and European. Cult Herit 439-442.

37. Pérez-Monserrat E, Varas-Muriel MJ, Fort R, et al. (2011) Cleaning methods assessment for the limestone's façades of formerly workers Hospital of Madrid, Spain. Stud Conserv 56: 297-312.

38. Pozo-Antonio JS, Rivas T, Fiorucci MP, et al. (2016). Effectiveness and harmfulness evaluation of graffiti cleaning by mechanical, chemical and laser procedures on granite. Microchem J 125: 1-9.    

Copyright Info: © 2017, David M. Freire-Lista, et al., licensee AIMS Press. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licese (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0)

Download full text in PDF

Export Citation

Article outline

Show full outline
Copyright © AIMS Press All Rights Reserved