Export file:


  • RIS(for EndNote,Reference Manager,ProCite)
  • BibTex
  • Text


  • Citation Only
  • Citation and Abstract

Characterization of high background radiation of terrestrial naturally occurring radionuclides in a mining region of Senegal

Institute of Applied Nuclear Technology, Faculty of Sciences and Techniques, University of Cheikh Anta Diop, P. O. Box 5005, Dakar, Senegal

A survey of natural radioactivity has been carried out to estimate the concentration of naturally occurring radionuclides and radiological risk associated in the south East mining region, which present high natural background radiation. An in-situ gamma-ray spectrometer was used to map natural environmental gamma-emitting radionuclides. A combined inferential statistical and chemometrics of naturally occurring radionuclides were used for data modelling and characterization. The radiological data surveys were explored using inferential statistical, principal component analysis and a supervised support vector machine learning. First, one-way Analysis of variance, on-parametric Kruskal Wallis test, was applied allowing pairwise comparison of radionuclides levels in sampling sites, second, data was submitted to PCA to extract noise-free data and reduced data was analyzed with support vector machine. PCA results show that 238U contribution (56%) is dominant in the first principal component with 40K (35%). The second component, with the cumulative variance explained of 88%, is dominated by 232Th (68%) and 40K (31%). Anova indicates that there is a significant difference in the mean mass concentration of samples type and soil activities are mostly lower. The best classification accuracy was 100% with the use of radial kernel density function. As potential uranium and gold mine site, these results will allow establishing both reference values for background radiation of the region and fingerprinting sources of naturally occurring radionuclides.
  Article Metrics


1. UNSCEAR (2000) United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. Report to the General Assembly, with Scientific Annexes. Sources and effects and risks of ionizing radiation. United Nations. New York.

2. Latife S, Nurgül H, Hakan Ç (2017) Assessment of radiological hazard parameters due to natural radioactivity in soils from granite-rich regions in Kütahya Province, Turkey. Isot Environ Healt S 53: 212-221.    

3. Alam M, Miah M, Chowdhury M, et al. (2016) Attenuation coefficients of soils and some building materials of Bangladesh in the energy range 276-1332 keV. Appl Radiat Isotopes 54: 973-6.

4. Faheem M, Mujahid S, Matiullah M (2008) Assessment of radiological hazards due to the natural radioactivity in soil and building material samples collected from six districts of the Punjab province, Pakistan. Radiat Meas 43: 1443-7.    

5. Kapdan E, Altinsoy N, Karahan G (2011) Determination of the health hazards due to background radiation sources in the city of Adapazari, Northwestern Turkey. Isot Environ Healt S 47: 93-100.    

6. Khan HM, Ismail M, Zia MA (2012) Measurement of radionuclides and absorbed dose rates in soil samples of Peshawar, Pakistan, using gamma ray spectrometry. Isot Environ Healt S 48: 295-301.    

7. Yang Y, Wu X, Jiang Z (2005) Radioactivity concentrations in soils of the Xiazhuang granite area, China. Appl Radiat Isotopes 63: 255-9.    

8. Dione D, Mbaye M, Sané ML, et al. (2018) Survey of Activity Concentration and Dose Estimation of Naturally Occurring Radionuclides (232Th, 238U and 40K) in the Coastal area of Dakar, Senegal. Indian J Sci Tech 11: 1-7.

9. Krstic D, Nikezic D, Stevanovic N, et al. (2007) Radioactivity of some domestic and imported building materials from South Eastern Europe. Radiat Meas 47: 1731-1736.

10. El-Arabi A, Abbady A, El-Hussein A (2011) Gamma-ray measurements of natural radioactivity in sedimentary rocks from Egypt. Nucl Sci Tech 17: 123-8.

11. Msaki P, Banzi FP (2000) Radioactivity in products derived from gypsum in Tanzania spectrometry. Radiat Prot Dosim 91: 409-12.    

12. Navas A, Gaspar L, López-Vicente M, et al. (2011) Spatial distribution of Natural and artificial radionuclides at the catchment scale (South Central Pyrenees). Radiat Meas 46: 261-9.    

13. Prakash MM, Kaliprasad CS, Narayana Y (2017) Study on natural radioactivity in the rocks of Coorg District, Karnataka State. Radia Res J Appl Sci 10: 128-134.

14. Safarov AA, Safarov AN, Azimov AN, et al. (2017) Rapid assessment methodology in NORM measurements from building materials of Uzbekistan. J Environ Radioactiv 169: 186-191.

15. Chiozzi P, Pasquale V, Verdoya M (2002) naturally occurring radioactivity at the Alpsapennines transition. Radia Meas 35: 147-154.    

16. Gongàlez-Fernàndez AB, Marcelo V, Valenciano JB, et al. (2012) Relationship between physical and chemical parameters for four commercial grape varieties from the Bierzo region (Spain). Sci Hortic 147: 111-117.    

17. Mbaye M, Traore A, Ndao AS, et al. (2015) Multivariate Statistical Techniques to Determine Essential and Toxic Elements in Biological Samples by X-Ray Fluorescence. Instrum Sci Technol 43: 369-378.    

18. Varmuza K, Filzmoser P (2016) Introduction to Multivariate Statistical Analysis in Chemometrics. CRC Press, Florida.

19. Mabit L, Gibbs M, Mbaye M, et al. (2018) Novel application of Compound Specific Stable Isotope (CSSI) techniques to investigate on-site sediment origins across arable fields. Geoderma 316: 19-26.    

20. Vapnik VN (1995) The Nature of Statistical Learning Theory, Springer-Verlag, New York.

21. Husson F, Lê S, Pagès J (2017) Exploratory Multivariate Data Analysis by Example Using R. Chapman & Hall/CRC Computer Science & Data Analysis (2nd edition).

© 2019 the Author(s), licensee AIMS Press. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licese (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0)

Download full text in PDF

Export Citation

Article outline

Show full outline
Copyright © AIMS Press All Rights Reserved