Export file:

Format

  • RIS(for EndNote,Reference Manager,ProCite)
  • BibTex
  • Text

Content

  • Citation Only
  • Citation and Abstract

A tool for calculating energy audits in water pressurized networks

1 Department of Civil Engineering, University of Alicante, Alicante, Spain
2 Instituto Universitario del Agua y las Ciencias Ambientales, Alicante, Spain

Special Issues: Urban Water Challenges: Risks, Management and Sustainability

This paper presents a matlab-based educational software (UAenergy) developed to compute the energy audit of a water pressurized network. This analysis allows accounting for all the energy involved in the water distribution stage in the urban water cycle, showing that the energy balance is maintained —the energy input to the pressurized network is equal to the energy output plus the energy dissipated through friction. This energy audit requires a previous water balance and the hydraulic model of the network, both of which are necessary to know the energy flows through the system’s boundaries. Obtained results show the energetic effect of every element (pipelines, pumps, valves, etc.) in the water distribution and also the influence of water losses in a leaky network. This software can be used for students and practitioners in the water sector, and it is possible to identify the improvement actions that will make the system more efficient.
  Figure/Table
  Supplementary
  Article Metrics

Keywords energy audit; water pressurized networks; matlab; leakage

Citation: M.A. Pardo, A.Riquelme, J. Melgarejo. A tool for calculating energy audits in water pressurized networks. AIMS Environmental Science, 2019, 6(2): 94-108. doi: 10.3934/environsci.2019.2.94

References

  • 1. Al-Ghamdi AS (2011) Leakage–pressure relationship and leakage detection in intermittent water distribution systems. J Water Supply Res Tec 60: 178–183.    
  • 2. Almandoz J, Cabrera E, Arregui F, et al. (2005) Leakage Assessment through Water Distribution Network Simulation. J Water Res Pl-ASCE 131: 458–466.    
  • 3. Bernardete C and António AC (2018) Energy Recovery in Water Networks: Numerical Decision Support Tool for Optimal Site and Selection of Micro Turbines. J Water Res Pl-ASCE 144: 04018004. Planning and Management.    
  • 4. Bijl DL, Bogaart PW, Kram T, et al. (2016) Long-term water demand for electricity, industry and households. Environ Sci Policy 55: 75–86.    
  • 5. Cabrera E, Gómez E, Cabrera Jr E, et al. (2014) Energy assessment of pressurized water systems. J Water Res Pl-ASC 141: 4014095.
  • 6. Cabrera E, Pardo MA, Cobacho R, et al. (2010) Energy audit of water networks. J Water Res Pl-ASCE 136: 669-677.    
  • 7. Cantos JO, Rosique AC, del Busto IC, et al. (2018) RESILIENCIA EN EL CICLO URBANO DEL AGUA. EXTREMOS PLUVIOMÉTRICOS Y ADAPTACIÓN AL CAMBIO CLIMÁTICO EN EL ÁMBITO MEDITERRÁNEO.
  • 8. Cobacho R, Arregui F, Soriano J, et al (2014) Including leakage in network models: an application to calibrate leak valves in EPANET. J Water Supply Res Tec 64: 130–138.
  • 9. Comission CE (2005) California's Water – Energy Relationship.
  • 10. Dall'O G (2011) GREEN ENERGY AUDIT-Manuale operativo per la diagnosi energetica e ambientale degli edifici Edizioni Ambiente.
  • 11. EEO (1994) Introduction to Energy Efficiency in Museums, Galleries, Libraries and Churches..
  • 12. Colombo AF, Karney BW (2002) Energy and costs of leaky pipes: Toward comprehensive picture. J Water Res Pl-ASCE 128: 441-450.    
  • 13. Fernández García I, Creaco E, Rodríguez Díaz JA, et al. (2016) Rehabilitating pressurized irrigation networks for an increased energy efficiency. Agr Water Manag 164: 212–222.    
  • 14. Francesco Berardi (2018) Hydraulic anlysis and optimization of the irrigation network of the university of Alicante Politecnico di bari i facoltà di ingegneria, Dicatech.
  • 15. Germanopoulos G. and Jowitt PW (1989) LEAKAGE REDUCTION BY EXCESS PRESSURE MINIMIZATION IN A WATER SUPPLY NETWORK. P I Civil Eng 87: 195–214.
  • 16. Greyvenstein B and van Zyl JE (2007) An experimental investigation into the pressure - leakage relationship of some failed water pipes. J Water Supply Res Tec 56: 117–124.    
  • 17. Hardy L, Garrido A and Juana L (2012) Evaluation of Spain's Water-Energy Nexus. Int J Water Resour D 28: 151–170.    
  • 18. Hernández E, Pardo MA, Cabrera E, et al. (2010) Energy assessment of water networks: A case study. Water Distrib Syst Anal 2010: 1168-1179.
  • 19. IEAIE (2016) Water Energy Nexus; Excerpt from the World Energy Outlook.
  • 20. Larsen MAD and Drews M (2019) Water use in electricity generation for water-energy nexus analyses: The European case. Sci Total Environ 651: 2044–2058.    
  • 21. Lenzi C, Bragalli C, Bolognesi A, et al. (2013) From energy balance to energy efficiency indicators including water losses. Water Sci and Technol 13: 889–895.
  • 22. Mamade A, Loureiro D, Alegre H, et al. (2017) A comprehensive and well tested energy balance for water supply systems. Urban Water J 14: 853–861.    
  • 23. Murgui M, Cabrera E, Pardo MA, et al. (2009) Estimación del consumo de energía ligado al uso del agua en la ciudad de Valencia. Jornadas de Ingeniería del Agua. Madrid.
  • 24. Pardo M and Riquelme A (2019) A software for considering leakage in water pressurized networks. Comput Appl Eng Educ 2019: 1–13.
  • 25. Pardo MA, Manzano J, Cabrera E, et al. (2013) Energy audit of irrigation networks. Biosyst Eng. 115: 89-101.    
  • 26. Pardo MA and Valdes-Abellan J (2019) Pipe replacement by age only, how misleading could it be? Water Supp. 19: 846–854.    
  • 27. Pelli T and Hitz HU (2000) Energy indicators and savings in water supply. JAm Water Works Ass 92: 55–62.
  • 28. Pérez-Sánchez M, Sánchez-Romero F, Ramos H, et al. (2016) Modeling irrigation networks for the quantification of potential energy recovering: A case study. Water. 8: 234.    
  • 29. Picazo PM, Juárez J and García-Márquez D (2018) Energy consumption optimization in irrigation networks supplied by a standalone direct pumping photovoltaic system. Sustain 10: 4203.    
  • 30. Farmani R, Walters GA, Savic DA (2005) Trade-off between Total Cost and Reliability for Anytown Water Distribution Network. J Water Res Pl-ASCE 131: 161–171.    
  • 31. Rossman LA (2000) EPANET 2: users manual.
  • 32. Telci I and Aral M (2018) Optimal Energy Recovery from Water Distribution Systems Using Smart Operation Scheduling. Water 10: 1464.    
  • 33. ValdesAbellan J, Pardo MA, TenzaAbril AJ (2017) Observed precipitation trend changes in the western Mediterranean region. Int J Climatol 37: 1285-1296.    
  • 34. Walski T (2016) Energy Balance for a Water Distribution System. World Environ and Water Resour Con 2016: 426–435.
  • 35. Walski TM, Brill Jr ED, Gessler J, et al. (1987) Battle of the network models: Epilogue. J Water Res Pl-ASCE 113:191–203.    

 

Reader Comments

your name: *   your email: *  

© 2019 the Author(s), licensee AIMS Press. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licese (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0)

Download full text in PDF

Export Citation

Copyright © AIMS Press All Rights Reserved