Export file:

Format

  • RIS(for EndNote,Reference Manager,ProCite)
  • BibTex
  • Text

Content

  • Citation Only
  • Citation and Abstract

Florida’s recycled water footprint: a geospatial analysis of distribution (2009 and 2015)

Department of Geosciences, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN, 37614, USA 

Water shortages resulting from increased demand or reduced supply may be addressed, in part, by redirecting recycled water for irrigation, industrial reuse, groundwater recharge, and as effluent discharge returned to streams. Recycled water is an essential component of integrated water management and broader adoption of recycled water will increase water conservation in water-stressed coastal communities. This study examined spatial patterns of recycled water use in Florida in 2009 and 2015 to detect gaps in distribution, quantify temporal change, and identify potential areas for expansion. Databases of recycled water products and distribution centers for Florida in 2009 and 2015 were developed by combining the 2008 and 2012 Clean Water Needs Survey databases with Florida’s 2009 and 2015 Reuse Inventory databases, respectively. Florida increased recycled water production from 674.85 mgd in 2009 to 738.15 mgd in 2015, an increase of 63.30 mgd. The increase was primarily allocated to use in public access areas, groundwater recharge, and industrial reuse, all within the South Florida Water Management District (WMD). In particular, Miami was identified in 2009 as an area of opportunity for recycled water development, and by 2015 it had increased production and reduced the production gap. Overall, South Florida WMD had the largest increase in production of 44.38 mgd (69%), while Southwest Florida WMD decreased production of recycled water by 1.68 mgd, or 3%. Overall increase in use of recycled water may be related to higher demand due to increased population coupled with public programs and policy changes that promote recycled water use at both the municipal and individual level.
  Figure/Table
  Supplementary
  Article Metrics

Keywords recycled water; water reuse; Florida; water management districts; kernel density estimation; geospatial analysis; spatiotemporal change

Citation: Jana E. Archer, Ingrid E. Luffman, Arpita N. Nandi, T. Andrew Joyner. Florida’s recycled water footprint: a geospatial analysis of distribution (2009 and 2015). AIMS Environmental Science, 2019, 6(1): 41-58. doi: 10.3934/environsci.2019.1.41

References

  • 1. Koch-Rose M, Mitsova-Boneva D, Root T (2011) Florida Water Management and Adaptation in the Face of Climate Change. A White Paper on Climate Change and Florida's Water Resources. 1–68.
  • 2. Kumar Singh C, Jha N, Eslamian S (2015) Reuse, Potable Water, and Possibilities, in Urban Water Reuse Handbook, Ch. 9, Ed. By Eslamian S, Taylor and Francis, CRC Group, USA, 113–126.
  • 3. Amiri MJ, Eslamian S, Arshadi M, et al. (2015) Water Recycling and Community, Urban Water Reuse Handbook, Ch. 22, Ed. By Eslamian, S., Taylor and Francis, CRC Group, USA, 261–274.
  • 4. Archer J, Luffman I, Joyner TA, et al. (2018) Identifying untapped potential: a geospatial analysis of Florida and California's 2009 recycled water production. J Water Reuse Desal.
  • 5. National Research Council. (2012) Water Reuse: Potential for Expanding the Nations Water Supply through Reuse of Municipal Wastewater. Washington DC: National Academies Press. 1–277.
  • 6. Angelakis A, Gikas P. (2014) Water reuse: Overview of current practices and trends in the world with emphasis on EU states. Water Utility J 8: 67–78.
  • 7. De Feo G, Antoniou G, Fardin H, et al. (2014) The historical development of sewers worldwide. Sustainability (Switzerland) 6: 3936–3974.    
  • 8. Newton D, Balgobin D, Badyal D, et al. (2011) Results, Challenges, and Future Approaches to California's Municipal Wastewater Recycling Survey. State Water Resources Control Board of California. 1–12.
  • 9. Toor G, Rainey D (2009) History and Current Status of Reclaimed Water Use in Florida. The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. 1–5.
  • 10. Florida Department of Environmental Protection. (2016) Reuse Inventory Database and Annual Report. 2015 Reuse Inventory. State of Florida.
  • 11. Po M, Kaercher J, Nancarrow B (2003) Literature Review of Factors Influencing Public Perceptions of Water Reuse. CSIRO Land and Water. Technical Report. 54/03(December):1–44.
  • 12. Dolnicar S, Saunders C (2006) Recycled water for consumer markets - a marketing research review and agenda. Desalination 187: 203–214.    
  • 13. Dolnicar S, Schäfer A (2009) Desalinated versus recycled water: Public perceptions and profiles of the accepters. J Environ Manage 9: 888–900.
  • 14. Crampton A, Ragusa A (2016) Exploring Perceptions and Behaviors about Drinking Water in Australia and New Zealand: Is It Risky to Drink Water, When and Why? Hydrology, 3: 8.
  • 15. Qian N, Leong C (2016) A game theoretic approach to implementation of recycled drinking water. Desalin Water Treat 3994: 1–9.
  • 16. Wang PF, Martin J, Morrison G (1999) Water Quality and Eutrophication in Tampa Bay, Florida. Estuar Coast Shelf S 49: 1–20.
  • 17. Bixio D, De Heyder B, Cikurel H, et al. (2005) Municipal wastewater reclamation: where do we stand? An overview of treatment technology and management practice. Water Sci Technol-W Sup 5: 77–86.
  • 18. Wintgens T, Melin T, Schäfer A, et al. (2005) The role of membrane processes in municipal wastewater reclamation and reuse. Desalination 178: 1–11.    
  • 19. Paterson W, Rushforth R, Ruddell B, et al. (2015) Water footprint of cities: A review and suggestions for future research. Sustainability 7: 8461–8490.    
  • 20. Rice J, Westerhoff P (2015) Spatial and Temporal Variation in De Facto Wastewater Reuse in Drinking Water Systems across the U.S.A. Environ Sci Technol 49: 982–989.    
  • 21. Luo W, Hai F, Price W, et al. (2016) Evaluating ionic organic draw solutes in osmotic membrane bioreactors for water reuse. J Membrane Sci 514: 636–645.    
  • 22. Kuwayama Y, Kamen H (2016) What Drives the Reuse of Municipal Wastewater? A County-Level Analysis of Florida. Land Econ 92: 679–702.
  • 23. Waste Treatment and Disinfection. § 62.610.460, 2006.
  • 24. Montagna P, Alber M, Doering P, et al. (2002) Freshwater Inflow: Science, Policy, Management. Estuaries 25: 1243–1245.    
  • 25. Maupin M, Kenny J, Hutson S, et al. (2014) Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 2010: USGS Circular 1405: 64.
  • 26. Bryck J, Prasad R, Lindley T, et al. (2008) National Database of Water Reuse Facilities Summary Report. WaterReuse Foundation, 1–121.
  • 27. Olexa M, Minton L, Miller D, et al. (2002) Handbook of Florida Water Regulation: Water Management Districts. IFAS Extension, 1–3.
  • 28. United States Environmental Protection Agency. Office of Water (2008) Clean Water Needs Survey. Microsoft Access database. Accessed on 5 Sept. 2015. Available from https://www.epa.gov/cwns%20.
  • 29. United States Environmental Protection Agency. Office of Water (2012) Clean Water Needs Survey. Microsoft Access database. Accessed on 5 Sept. 2015. Available from https://www.epa.gov/cwns%20.
  • 30. Florida Department of Environmental Protection (2010) Reuse Inventory Database and Annual Report. 2009 Reuse Inventory. Tallahassee.
  • 31. Environmental Systems Research Institute (2016) ArcGIS Desktop: Release 10.4.1. Redlands, CA.
  • 32. IBM Corp (Released 2014) IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 23.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp.
  • 33. Levine N (2015) CrimeStat: A Spatial Statistics Program for the Analysis of Crime Incident Locations (v 4.02). Ned Levine & Associates, Houston, Texas, and the National Institute of Justice, Washington, D.C. 1–219.
  • 34. United States Environmental Protection Agency (2012) Office of Wastewater Management. Guidelines for Water Reuse. EPA/625/R-04/108, 1–643. Available from https://nepis.epa.gov/Adobe/PDF/P100FS7K.pdf.
  • 35. Florida Department of Environmental Protection (2009) Connecting Reuse and Water Use: A Report of the Reuse Stakeholders Meetings. 1–11.
  • 36. Florida Department of Environmental Protection. Office of Water Policy. (2015) Report on Expansion of Beneficial Use of Reclaimed Water, Stormwater and Excess Surface Water. Senate Bill 536, 1–230.
  • 37. Miami-Dade Water and Sewer Department (2007) Reuse Feasibility Study (Section 7) Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations. Miami-Dade County. 7.1–7.8.
  • 38. MWH (2009) Biscayne Bay Coastal Wetlands Rehydration Pilot Project. Technical Memorandum #2 Miami-Dade County. 1–40.
  • 39. United States Environmental Protection Agency. (2017) National Water Quality Inventory: Report to Congress, EPA 841-R-16-011.

 

Reader Comments

your name: *   your email: *  

© 2019 the Author(s), licensee AIMS Press. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licese (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0)

Download full text in PDF

Export Citation

Copyright © AIMS Press All Rights Reserved