Export file:


  • RIS(for EndNote,Reference Manager,ProCite)
  • BibTex
  • Text


  • Citation Only
  • Citation and Abstract

Evaluating ecosystem services and drivers of change in Spanish groundwater-related wetlands included in the Ramsar Convention

1 Department of Research in Geological Resources, Instituto Geológico y Minero de España (IGME), Madrid, Spain
2 Technical University of Catalonia, Barcelona. Royal Academy of Sciences, Madrid, Spain

Special Issues: Wetlands Protection and Restoration

There are 74 wetlands in Spain, most of which are groundwater-related, included in the Ramsar Convention. This means that groundwater is one of several components involved in how these wetlands function. This paper analyses the ecosystem services provided by 59 groundwater-related Ramsar wetlands, and this assessment is both of the services provided by the wetlands and of the impact of drivers of change. The results show that a significant number of ecosystem services are provided at a high level, in contrast to the large number of services identified as non-existent or the small number of services identified as unknown. The trend of the ecosystem services evolution is shown to be predominantly continuing. Thus, in the majority of the ecosystem services assessed there is no change in performance level. Comparing the impact level of the seven main types of drivers of change considered in this research, non-existent is the most frequently reported result for almost all drivers. Nevertheless, these results do not reflect the current reality as they highlight the need to improve the basic data to achieve a satisfactory understanding of the interactions between wetlands-groundwater-human wellbeing, which are crucially important for the conservation, management and valuation of this natural capital.
  Article Metrics

Keywords ecosystem services; evolution trend; groundwater-related wetlands; Ramsar; Spain

Citation: Africa de la Hera, Emilio Custodio Gimena, Àngel García Cortés. Evaluating ecosystem services and drivers of change in Spanish groundwater-related wetlands included in the Ramsar Convention. AIMS Environmental Science, 2017, 4(2): 232-250. doi: 10.3934/environsci.2017.2.232


  • 1. Milenium Ecosystem Assessment (2005a) Ecosystems and human well-being: wetlands and water synthesis. Washington, DC, USA: World Resources Institute. 80 pp. Available from: http://www.millenniumassessment.org/documents/document.358.aspx.pdf
  • 2. Milenium Ecosystem Assessment (2005b) Ecosystems and human well-being: synthesis. Washington, DC, USA: Island Press. 155 pp. Available from: http://www.millenniumassessment.org/documents/document.356.aspx.pdf
  • 3. Andalusian Plan of Wetlands [Plan Andaluz de Humedales] (2002) Junta de Andalucia. Consejería de Medio Ambiente y Ordenación del Territorio. 253 pp. Available from: http://www.juntadeandalucia.es/medioambiente/site/portalweb/menuitem.7e1cf46ddf59bb227a9ebe205510e1ca/?vgnextoid=2269731f73277010VgnVCM1000000624e50aRCRD&vgnextchannel=f5119d7f4c335310VgnVCM1000001325e50aRCRD
  • 4. Custodio E (2001) Effects of groundwater development on the environment. Boletín Geológico y Minero. Madrid. 111: 107-120.
  • 5. Custodio E (2010) Las aguas subterráneas como elemento básico de la existencia de numerosos humedales. Ingeniería del Agua 17: 119-135.
  • 6. CSIRO-SKM (2012) Atlas of Groundwater Dependent Ecosystems (GDE Atlas) Phase 2. Task 5 Report: Identifiying and mapping GDEs. Australian Government. National Water Commission. Sinclair Knight Merz. Melbourne, Australia, 405 pp.
  • 7. Bocanegra E, Manzano M, Betancur T, et al. (2012) Caracterización preliminar de las interacciones aguas subterráneas–humedales–ser humano en Iberoamérica y en la Península Ibérica. XI Congreso ALHSUD – IV Congreso Colombiano de Hidrogeología, Cartagena de Indias, Colombia. 5 pp.
  • 8. Betancur T, Bocanegra E, Manzano M, et al. (2013) Acerca del estado del conocimiento respecto a las interacciones aguas subterráneas–humedales–bienestar humano en Iberoamérica y la Península Ibérica. In: González, N., Kruse, E.E., Trovatto, M.M., Laurencena, P. (eds). Temas Actuales de la Hidrología Subterránea. Editorial de la Universidad de La Plata (Edulp). La Plata: 255–262. ISBN: 978–987–1985–03–6.
  • 9. Casado S, Montes C (1995) Guía de los lagos y humedales de España (Guide of the lakes and ponds of Spain). JM Reyero (Ed.). Madrid, Spain, 255pp.
  • 10. Ramsar, Ramsar List. Ministerio de Agricultura, Pesca, Alimentación y Medio Ambiente, 2017. Available from: http://www.mapama.gob.es/es/biodiversidad/temas/ecosistemas-y-conectividad/conservacion-de-humedales/ch_hum_ramsar_esp_lista.aspx
  • 11. Durán JJ, García de Domingo A, López-Geta JA (2003) Hydrogeological characterization of the Spanish Wetlands included in Ramsar Convention. IGME. Madrid, Spain.
  • 12. De la Hera A, Fornés JM, Durán JJ, et al. (2013) Caracterización hidrogeológica de los humedales Ramsar designados por España entre los años 2003 y 2013. In: Bxo A, Oliveira J, Sánchez L (Eds). Fundación Nueva Cultura del Agua. Libro de Actas del VIII Congreso Ibérico sobre Gestión y Planificación del Agua. Lisboa 5-7 Diciembre 2013. ISNB: 978-989-640-160-3. Universidade Lusíada Editora, Lisboa, 1: 856.
  • 13. Ecomilenio, Evaluación de los Ecosistemas del Milenio de España, EME (2011). La Evaluación de los Ecosistemas del Milenio de España. Síntesis de resultados. Fundación Biodiversidad. Ministerio de Medio Ambiente, y Medio Rural y Marino. Madrid, 305 pp.
  • 14. Bocanegra E, Manzano M, Custodio E, et al. (2014) Analysis of management actions in wetlands providing high services to human well-being in Iberian-America. In: Actas V Congreso Colombiano de Hidrogeología, Medellín, Colombia.
  • 15. Manzano M, Bocanegra E, Custodio E, et al. (2013) An approach to human well-being services from groundwater related wetlands in Iberia-American. X Simposio de Hidrogeología, Asociación Española de Hidrogeólogos, Granada. In: Hidrogeología y Recursos Hidráulicos 30: 953-963.
  • 16. UNEP-MAP UNESCO-IHP (2015a) Regional Report on Management and protection of Mediterranean groundwater-related coastal wetlands and their services. Strategic Partnership for the Mediterranean Sea Large Marine Ecosystem (MedPartnership), París. 215 pp.
  • 17. UNEP-MAP UNESCO-IHP (2015b) Main Hydro(geo)logical Characteristics, Ecosystem Services and Drivers of Change of 26 representative Mediterranean Groundwater-Related Coastal Wetlands. Strategic Partnership for the Mediterranean Sea Large Marine Ecosystem (MedPartnership), UNESCO, París, 48 pp.
  • 18. UNEP-MAP UNESCO-IHP IGME (2015) Hydrogeological and ecosystem services classification of representative Mediterranean coastal related-wetlands. Map of selected wetlands in the Mediterranean area. Map explanation, UNESCO, Paris, 25 pp.
  • 19. De la Hera A, Camacho A, Manzano M, et al. (2015) Cartography of geohydrological classification and ecosystem services of groundwater-related wetlands in the area of Mediterranean coast. In: Segundas Jornadas El Papel del Agua subterránea en el funcionamiento de los humedales. Mas-Pla J, Lambán LJ, Valverde M (eds). Asociación Internacional de Hidrogeológicos-Grupo Español. CD.
  • 20. Manzano M, Camacho A, Custodio E, et al. (2016a) Results and lessons learned from the analysis of groundwater-related coastal wetlands and ecosystems services evaluated in the GEF MedPartnership project. IAH International Hydrogeological Congress, Montpellier, France, CD.
  • 21. De la Hera A, Manzano M, Camacho A, et al. (2016b) Cartografía hidrogeológica y de servicios ecosistémicos de humedales relacionados con las aguas subterráneas en el ámbito costero mediterráneo: resultados del proyecto UNEP-IHP MedPartnership. Jornadas "Celebración 50 Aniversario CIHS 1966-2016". Barcelona,Spain, CD.
  • 22. Álvarez-Cobelas M, Catalán J, García de Jalón D (2005) Impacts on inland aquatic ecosystems. In: Impacts of climatic change in Spain. Ministerio de Agricultura y Pesca, Alimentación y Medio ambiente, Madrid, Spain, 109-141. Available from: http://www.mapama.gob.es/es/cambio-climatico/temas/impactos-vulnerabilidad-y-adaptacion/03_impacts_on_inland_aquatic_ecosystems_ing_tcm7-199431.pdf consulted 8-2-2017
  • 23. SNEA (2014) Ecosystems and biodiversity for human wellbeing. Spanish National Ecosystem Assessment. Synthesis of key findings. Fundación Biodiversidad, Ministerio de Agricultura, Alimentación y Medio Ambiente de España. 90 pp.
  • 24. FIR, Ficha Informativa Ramsar. Ministerio de Agricultura y Pesca, Alimentación y Medio ambiente, Madrid, Spain, 2017. Available from: http://www.mapama.gob.es/es/biodiversidad/temas/ecosistemas-y-conectividad/


This article has been cited by

  • 1. V. Estruch-Guitart, A. Valls-Civera, An economic valuation of ecosystem services provided by the River Turia Natural Park (Valencia), Economía Agraria y Recursos Naturales, 2019, 18, 2, 93, 10.7201/earn.2018.02.05

Reader Comments

your name: *   your email: *  

Copyright Info: 2017, Africa de la Hera, et al., licensee AIMS Press. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licese (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0)

Download full text in PDF

Export Citation

Copyright © AIMS Press All Rights Reserved