Export file:


  • RIS(for EndNote,Reference Manager,ProCite)
  • BibTex
  • Text


  • Citation Only
  • Citation and Abstract

On the Durability of Nuclear Waste Forms from the Perspective of Long-Term Geologic Repository Performance

Sandia National Laboratories, P. O. Box 5800, Albuquerque, NM 87185, USA

High solid/water ratios and slow water percolation cause the water in a repository to quickly (on a repository time scale) reach radionuclide solubility controlled by the equilibrium with alteration products; the total release of radionuclides then becomes insensitive to the dissolution rates of primary waste forms. It is therefore suggested that future waste form development be focused on conditioning waste forms or repository environments to minimize radionuclide solubility, rather than on marginally improving the durability of primary waste forms.
  Article Metrics


1. Ringwood AE, Kesson SE, Revve KD, et al. (1988) Synroc (for radiowaste solidification), in Radioactive Waste Forms for the Future, W. Lutze and R. C. Ewing (eds), North-Holland, Amsterdam, 233-334.

2. Ewing RC (1999) Nuclear waste forms for actinides. Proc Natl Acad Sci 96: 3432-3439.    

3. Peters MT, Ewing RC (2007) A science-based approach to understanding waste form durability in open and closed nuclear fuel cycles. J Nucl Mater 362: 395-401.    

4. Grambow B (2006) Nuclear waste glasses – how durable? Elements 2: 357-364.    

5. Lumpkin GR (2006) Ceramic Waste Forms for Actinides Elements 2: 365-372.

6. SNL (Sandia National Laboratories) (2008) Total System Performance Assessment Model/Analysis for the License Application, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

7. IAEA (2003) Technical Reports Series No. 4I3, Scientific and Technical Basis for the Geological Disposal of Radioactive Wastes.

8. Murphy WM (2004) Measures of geologic isolation. Mat Res Soc Symp Proc 824: cc3.5.1-cc3.5.9.

9. Kienzler B, Metz V, Lutzenkirchen J, et al. (2007) Geochemically based safety assessment. J Nucl Sci Technol 44: 470-476.    

10. Hearn PP, Steinkampf WC, Bortleson GC, et al. (1985) Geochemical Controls on Dissolved Sodium in Basalt Aquifers of the Columbia Plateau, Washington. Water-Resources Investigations Report 84-4304. Tacoma, Washington: U.S. Geological Survey.

11. Lu L, Chen F, Ewing RC, et al. (2007) Trace element immobilization by uranyl minerals in granite-hosted uranium ores: Evidences from the Xiazhuang ore field of Guangdong province, China. Radiochim Acta 95: 25-32.

12. Ortoleva P, Merino E, Moore C, et al. (1987) Geochemical self-organization, I. Feedbacks, quantitative modeling. Am J Sci 287: 979–1007.

13. Wang Y, Jove-Colon CF, Mattie PD, et al. (2010), Thermal, hydrodynamic, and chemical constraints on water availability inside breached waste packages in the Yucca mountain repository. Nucl Technol 171: 201-219.

14. Helton JC, Bean JE, Berglund JW, et al. (1998) Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analysis Results Obtained in the 1996 Performance Assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

15. ANDRA (2005) Dossier 2005 Argile: Evaluation of the feasibility of a geological repository in an argillaceous formation.

16. Wang Y, Brush LH, Bynum RV (1997) Use of MgO to mitigate the effect of microbial CO2 production in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. WM'97, March 2-6, 1997, Tucson, Arizona..

17. Bates JK, Bradley JP, Teetsov A, et al. (1992) Colloid formation during waste form reaction: Implications for nuclear waste disposal. Science 256: 649-651.    

18. Buck EC, Bates JK (1999) Microanalysis of colloids and suspended particles from nuclear waste glass alteration. Appl Geochem 14: 635-653.    

19. S. B. Chen, Y. G. Zhu, Y. B. Ma (2006) The effect of grain size of rock phosphate amendment on metal immobilization in contaminated soils. J. Hazardous Mater 134: 74-79.    

20. Ndiba P, Axe L, Boonfueng T (2008) Heavy Metal immobilization through phosphate and thermal treatment of dredged sediments. Environ. Sci Technol 42: 920-926.    

21. Kim CW, Day D (2003) Immobilization of Hanford LAW in iron phosphate glasses. J Non-Crystalline Solids 331: 20-31.    

22. Ojovan MI, Hand RJ, Ojovan NV, et al. (2005) Corrosion of alkali-boro silicate waste glass K-26 in nono-saturated conditions. J Nucl Mater 340: 12-24.    

23. BSC (Bechtel SAIC Company) (2004) CSNF Waste Form Degradation: Summary Abstraction. ANL-EBS-MD-000015 REV 02. Las Vegas, Nevada: Bechtel SAIC Company.

24. Strachan DM, Scheele RD, Buck EC, et al. (2005) Radiation damage effects in candidate titanates for Pu Pu disposition: Pyrochlore, J Nucl Mater 345: 109-135.

25. Begg BD, Hess NJ, Weber WJ, et al. (2001) Heavy-ion irradiation effects on structures and acidic dissolution of pyrochlores. J Nucl Mater 288: 208-216.    

26. Zhang Y, Hart KP, Bourcier WL, et al. (2001) Kinetics of uranium release from Synroc phases. J Nucl Mater 289: 254-262.    

27. Ewing RC, Haaker RF, Lutze W (1982) Leachability of zircon as a function of alpha dose, in Scientific Basis for Nuclear Waste Management V., Lutze W (ed), Elsevier, New York, 389-397.

28. ANDRA (2005) Dossier 2005 Argile: Evaluation of the feasibility of a geological repository in an argillaceous formation. December 2005 and Dossier 2005 Granite: Assets of granite formations for deep geological disposal.

29. Lumpkin GR (2001) Alpha-decay damage and aqueous durability of actinide host phases in natural systems. J Nucl Mater 289: 136-166.    

30. Geisler T, Schaltegger U, Tomaschek F (2007) Re-equilibration of zircon in aqueous fluids and melts. Elements 3: 43-50.    

31. Tromans J (2006) Solubility of crystalline and metamict zircon: A thermodynamic analysis. J Nucl Mater 357: 221-223.    

Copyright Info: © 2014, Yifeng Wang, et al., licensee AIMS Press. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licese (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0)

Download full text in PDF

Export Citation

Article outline

Show full outline
Copyright © AIMS Press All Rights Reserved