Export file:


  • RIS(for EndNote,Reference Manager,ProCite)
  • BibTex
  • Text


  • Citation Only
  • Citation and Abstract

Feasibility of large scale wind turbines for offshore gas platform installation

Izmir Institute of Technology, Department of Energy Systems Engineering, Urla 35430 Izmir, Turkey

Topical Section: Wind Energy

Although, offshore wind energy development emerged under way at the beginning of the millennium, Europe is planning to bring offshore wind energy capacity to over 11.6 GW until 2020. This is nearly 10 times todays installed offshore capacity and equal to nearly 50% of the new planned investment in the wind energy market. The North Sea and the Baltic Sea are the main investment areasdue to the shallower sea depth. In this paper an approach to use old gas/oil platforms as the foundation for a wind turbine is examined. An offshore gas platform close to Istanbul Turkey with over 20 years more lifetime is taken as a real-life case, with the wind resource information extracted from the recent large-scale wind atlas study, Global Wind Atlas version 2. The study aims to combine recent offshore economical models with up-to-date scientific wind energy yield assessment models to have a more realistic look on the feasibility of such an approach. The results show that, with the assumption of no extra support structure and capital loan costs, a project can be feasible with bigger then 8MW wind turbines. These may involve a large initial investment but the return of the investment (ROI) can be as low as 8 years. With bigger turbines, profit can be increased, and ROI can be decreased while the Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE) displays minor decrease after 10 MW.
  Article Metrics

Keywords wind; offshore; feasibility; platform; ROI

Citation: Ferhat Bingol. Feasibility of large scale wind turbines for offshore gas platform installation. AIMS Energy, 2018, 6(6): 967-978. doi: 10.3934/energy.2018.6.967


  • 1. WindEurope, Wind in Power, 2016 European statistics. (2017) Available from: https:// windeurope.org/about-wind/statistics/european/wind-in-power-2017/.
  • 2. WindEurope, Wind Energy in Europe: Outlook to 2020. (2016) Available from: https:// windeurope.org/about-wind/reports/wind-energy-in-europe-outlook-to-2020/.
  • 3. Sempreviva A, Barthelmie R, Pryor S (2008) Review of methodologies for offshore wind resource assessment in European seas. Surv Geophys 29: 471–497.    
  • 4. Schwartz M, Heimiller D, Haymes S, et al. (2010) Assessment of offshore Wind Energy Resources for the United States. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO, USA. Technical Report No. NREL/TP-500-45889.
  • 5. Green Growth, The Impact of Wind Energy on Jobs and the Economy, European Wind Energy Association Report. (2012) Available from: http://www.ewea.org/fileadmin/ewea_ documents/documents/publications/reports/Green_Growth.pdf.
  • 6. Bailey H, Brookes KL, Thompson, PM (2014) Assessing environmental impacts of offshore wind farms: lessons learned and recommendations for the future. Aquatic Biosystems 10: 8.    
  • 7. Myhr A, Bjerkseter C, Ågotnes A, et al. (2014) Levelised cost of energy for offshore floating wind turbines in a life cycle perspective. Renew Energ 66: 714–728.    
  • 8. Laura CS, Vicente DC (2014) Life-cycle cost analysis of floating offshore wind farms. Renew Energ 66: 41–48.    
  • 9. Stewart G, Muskulus M (2016) A review and comparison of floating offshore wind turbine model experiments. Energy Procedia, 13th Deep Sea offshore Wind R&D Conference, EERA DeepWind'2016 94: 227–231.
  • 10.Hasager C, Mouche A, Badger M, et al. (2014) offshore wind climatology based on synergetic use of ENVISAT, ASAR, ASCAT and QUIKSCAT. Remote Sens Environ 156: 247–263.
  • 11.Hasager C, Badger M, Hahmann A (2016) offshore wind power in the Aegean sea. In Living Planet Symposium 2016. Prague, Czech Republic.
  • 12.Badger M, Karagali I, Ahsbahs TT, et al. (2017) offshore winds from a new generation of European satellites. Wind Energy Science Conference, Lyngby, Denmark.
  • 13.Badger J. Global Wind Atlas Version 1, 2016.
  • 14.Badger J. Global Wind Atlas Version 2, 2017. Available from: http://www.globalwindatlas. info
  • 15.Howe RJ (1986) Evolution of offshore drilling and production technology. In offshore Technology Conference. Houston, Texas.
  • 16.Dokken Q (1993) Flower Gardens Ocean Research-Project – Using offshore Platforms As Research Stations. Mar Technol Soc J 27: 45–50.
  • 17.Bureau Ocean Energy Management, Jurisdiction over projects that make alternate use of existing oil and natural gas platforms in Federal waters, Energy Policy Act, 2005. USA
  • 18.Greentech Media (2009) When oil rig met wind turbine. Available from: https://www. greentechmedia.com/articles/read/when-oil-rig-met-wind-turbine-5692.
  • 19.Jonkman J, Butterfield S, Musial W, et al. (2009) Definition of a 5-MW Reference Wind Turbine for offshore System Development. National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Golden, CO, USA. Technical Report No. NREL/TP-500-38060.
  • 20.LEANWIND – Logistic Eciencies and Naval Architecture for Wind Installations with Novel Developments Project Final Report, 2017, European Union Funded Project.
  • 21.MHI Vestas offshore V164-8.0 MW Technical Document, 2018. Available from: http://www. mhivestasoffshore.com.
  • 22.Bak C, Zahle F, Bitsche R, et al. (2013) The DTU 10MW reference wind turbine presentation. Technical University of Denmark, Wind Energy Department., Lyngby, Denmark. Available from: http://orbit.dtu.dk/files/55645274/The_DTU_10MW_Reference_Turbine_ Christian_Bak.pdf
  • 23.Desmond C, Murphy J, Blonk L, et al. (2016) Description of an 8 MW reference wind turbine. J Phys: Conference Series 753: 9.
  • 24.Badger M (2006) Wind energy applications of synthetic aperture radar. PhD thesis. Technical University of Denmark, Wind Energy Department., Lyngby, Denmark.
  • 25.Karagali I (2012) offshore Wind Energy: Wind and Sea Surface Temperature from Satellite Observations. PhD thesis. Technical University of Denmark, Wind Energy Department. Lyngby Denmark.
  • 26.Hasager C, Badger M, Pena Diaz A, et al. (2011) SAR-based wind resource statistics in the Baltic sea. Remote Sens 3: 117–144.    
  • 27.Hasager C, Badger M, Badger J, et al. (2011). ASAR for offshore wind energy. ESA-ESRIN, Sentinel Potential Science Products for Cryosphere, Ocean, Land and Solid Earth Research Assessment and Consolidation Workshop. Frascati, Italy.
  • 28.Bingöl F, Hasager CB, Karagali I, et al. (2012) offshore Wind Atlas of Aegean Sea: A simple comparison of RE-analysis data, QUIKSCAT and SAR. In European Wind Energy Conference & Exhibition, Copenhagen, Denmark. 3: 1579–1585.
  • 29.Oldroyd A, Hasager CB, Stickland M, et al. (2013) EC FP7 NORSEWInD Project Outcomes. European Wind Energy Conference &Exhibition, Vienna, Austria.
  • 30.Antoniou I, Courtney M, Ejsing Jørgensen H, et al. (2007) Remote sensing the wind using lidars and sodars. European Wind Energy Conference. Milan, Italy.
  • 31.Gottschall J, Wolken-Mhlmann G, Lange B. (2014) About offshore resource assessment with floating lidars with special respect to turbulence and extreme events. J Physi: Conference Series, 555:1
  • 32.Pena A (2017) RUNE benchmarks. Technical University of Denmark, Wind Energy Department., Lyngby, Denmark.
  • 33.Nielsen M (1999) A method for spatial interpolation of wind climatologies. Wind Energy 2: 151– 166.    
  • 34.Charnock H, Francis JRD, Sheppard PA (1955) Medium-scale turbulence in the trade winds. Q J Roy Meteor Soc 81: 634–635.    
  • 35.Troen I, Lundtang Petersen E (1984)Windatlas for the European Communities. La Loupe, 561–573.
  • 36.Jarvis A, Reuter H, Nelson A, et al. (2008) Hole-filled SRTM for the globe version 4, available from the CGIAR-CSI SRTM 90m database. Database. Greenbelt, MD, EUA: CGIAR Consortium for Spatial Information (CGIAR-CSI). Available from: http://srtm.csi.cgiar.org.
  • 37.Ebenhoch R, Matha D, Marathe S, et al. (2015) Comparative levelized cost of energy analysis. Energy Procedia, 12th Deep Sea offshore Wind R&D Conference, EERA DeepWind'2015 80: 108– 122.


Reader Comments

your name: *   your email: *  

© 2018 the Author(s), licensee AIMS Press. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licese (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0)

Download full text in PDF

Export Citation

Copyright © AIMS Press All Rights Reserved