Analysis of Passive RF-DC Power Rectification and Harvesting Wireless RF Energy for Micro-watt Sensors
University of Freiburg, Department of Microsystems Engineering - IMTEK. Laboratory for Electrical Instrumentation. Georges-Köhler-Allee 106, 79110 Freiburg, Germany
Special Issue: Energy Harvesting for Remote Power
In this paper, analytical modeling of passive rectifying circuits and the harvesting of electromagnetic (EM) power from intentionally generated as well as from ubiquitous sources are presented. The presented model is based on the linearization of rectifying circuits. The model provides an accurate method of determining the output characteristics of rectifying circuits. The model was verified with Advance Design System (ADS) Harmonic balance (HB) simulations and measurements. The results from the presented model were in agreement with simulations and measurements. Consequently design considerations and trade-off of radio frequency (RF) harvesters are discussed. To verify the exploitation of ambient RF power sources for operation of sensors, a dual-band antenna with a size of ~λ/4 at 900MHz and a passive dual-band rectifier that is able to power a commercial Thermo-Hygrometer requiring ~1.3V and 0.5MΩ from a global system for mobile communications (GSM) base station is demonstrated. The RF power delivered by the receiving dual-band antenna at a distance of about 110 m from the GSM base station ranges from -27 dBm to -50 dBm from the various GSM frequency bands. Additionally, wireless range measurements of the RF harvesters in the industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) band 868MHz is presented at indoor conditions.
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