Export file:


  • RIS(for EndNote,Reference Manager,ProCite)
  • BibTex
  • Text


  • Citation Only
  • Citation and Abstract

Solar Energy: Incentives to Promote PV in EU27

Department of Economic Analysis-Chair of Energy and Environmental Economics-Facultad de CC.Económicas y Empresariales, Ramon y Cajal 1. Seville, 41018, Spain

The growth in the use of renewable energies in the EU has been remarkable. Among these energies is PV. The average annual growth rate for the EU-27 countries in installed PV capacity in the period 2005-2012 was 41.2%. While the installed capacity of PV has reached almost 82 % of National Renewable Energy Action Plan (NREAP) targets for the EU-27 countries for 2020, it is still far from being used at its full potential. Over recent years, several measures have been adopted in the EU to enhance and promote PV. This paper undertakes a complete review of the state of PV power in Europe and the measures taken to date to promote it in EU-27. 25 countries have adopted measures to promote PV. The most widespread measure to promote PV use is Feed- in Tariffs. Tariffs are normally adjusted, in a decreasing manner, annually. Nevertheless, currently, seven countries have decided to accelerate this decrease rate in view of cost reduction of the installations and of higher efficiencies. The second instrument used to promote PV in the EU-27 countries is the concession of subsidies. Nevertheless, subsidies have the disadvantage of being closely linked to budgetary resources and therefore to budgetary constraints. In most EU countries, subsidies for renewable energy for PV are being lowered. Twelve EU-27 countries adopted tax measures. Low-interest loans and green certificate systems were only sparingly used.
  Article Metrics


1. Veerapen J., Beerepoot M. (2011) Co-Generation and Renewables. Paris: OECD/IEA.

2. IEA. (2012) Key World Energy Statistics. Paris: OECD/IEA.

3. Observer. (2012) Worldwide Electricity Production from Renewable Energy Sources. Paris: Observer.

4. IEA. (2012) World energy outlook 2012. Renewable energy outlook. Paris: OECD/IEA.

5. EREC. (2011) Mapping Renewable Energy Pathways towards 2020. Belgium: EREC.

6. Pinkse J., Van den Buuse D. (2012) The development and commercialization of solar pv technology in the oil Industry. Energy Policy 40: 11-20.    

7. Tsur, Y., Zemel A. (2000) Long-term perspective on the development of solar energy. Solar Energy 68: 379-392.    

8. Gross R., Leach M., Bauen A. (2003). Progress in renewable energy. Environ Int. 29: 105-122.    

9. World Energy Assessment. (2000) Energy and the Challenge of Sustainability. New York: United Nations Publications.

10. EPIA (European Photovoltaic Industry Association). (2013) Global Market Outlook. For Photovoltaics. 2013-1017. Brussels: EPIA.

11. Greentech Media. (2013) U.S. Solar Market Insight Report - Q1 2013 San Francisco: Greentech Media, Inc. and Solar Energy Industries Association.

12. Solarbuzz. Module pricing: Retail Price Summary - March 2012 Update, Available from: http://www.solarbuzz.com/facts-and-figures/retail-price-environment/module-prices

13. IEA. (2012) Renewable Energy. Market Trends and Projections to 2017. Medium-Term 2012 Market Report. Paris: OECD/IEA.

14. Bazilian M., Onyeji I., Liebreich M., et al. (2013) Re-considering the economics of photovoltaic power. Renewable Energy 53: 329-338.    

15. EPIA (European Photovoltaic Industry Association). (2013) European Pv Support Schemes Overview. Brussels: EPIA.

16. EurObserv'ER. (2013) EurObserv’ER database. Paris: EurObserv'ER.

17. RESLegal. Renewable Energy Policy Database and Support Available from: http://www.res-legal.eu/home/

18. Höhne N., Geurts F., Teckenburg E. et al. (2011) EU climate policy tracker 2011. Belgium: Ecofys.

19. De Jager J., Klessmann C., Stricker E. et al. (2011) Financing Renewable Energy in the European Energy Market Belgium: Ecofys.

20. European Commision. (2013) Members States' progress reports. 2011 European Belgium: Commission.

21. European Commission. (2013) Taxes in Europe. Database. Belgium: European Comisión.

22. Poullikkas A., Kourtis G., Hadjipaschalis I. (2012) An overview of the EU Member States support schemes for the promotion of renewable energy sources, Int J Energy Environ 4: 553-566.

23. Poullikkas A. (2013) A comparative assessment of net metering and feed in tariff schemes for residential PV systems, Sustain Energy Technol Assess 3: 1-8.

24. Haas R., Panzer C., Resch G.., Ragwitz M., Reece G., Held A. (2011) A historical review of promotion strategies for electricity from renewable energy sources in EU countries. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 15: 1003-1034.    

25. Haas R., Resch G., Panzer C., Busch S., Ragwitz M., Held A. (2011) Efficiency and effectiveness of promotion systems for electricity generation from renewable energy sources - Lessons from EU countries. Energy 36: 2186-2193.    

26. Campoccia A., Dusonchet L., Telaretti E., Zizzo G. (2009) Comparative analysis of different supporting measures for the production of electrical energy by solar PV and Wind systems: Four representative European cases. Solar Energy 83: 287-297.    

27. Cansino J. M., Pablo-Romero M.D.P., Román R., et al. (2010) Tax incentives to promote green electricity: An overview of EU-27 countries. Energy Policy 38: 6000-6008.    

28. Sarzynski A., Shrimali J. (2012) The impact of state financial incentives on market deployment of solar technology. Energy Policy 46: 550-557.    

29. Darghouth N.R., Barbose G., Wiser R. (2011) The impact of rate design and net metering on the bill savings from distributed PV for residential customers in California. Energy Policy 39: 5243-5253.    

30. Šúri M., Huld T.A, Dunlop E.D. et al. (2007) Potential of solar electricity generation in the European Union Member States and candidate countries. Solar Energy 81: 1295-1305.    

31. Cherrelle. (2012) Solar Photovoltaic Energy Policy in Europe: Losing Sight of What is Right. Paris: l’Ifri.

32. García-Alvarez M.T., Mariz-Pérez R.M. (2012) Analysis of the Success of Feed-in Tariff for Renewable Energy Promotion Mechanism in the EU: Lessons from Germany and Spain, Procedia Soc Behav Sci 65: 52-57.

33. Sandström C. (2013) Are Green Jobs Promising the Moon? Sweden: Timbro.

34. Frondel M., Ritter N., Schmidt C.M. (2008) Germany's Solar Cell Promotion: Dark Clouds on the Horizon. Energy Policy 36: 4198-4204.    

35. Frondel M., Ritter N., Schmidt C.M, Vance C. (2010) Economic Impacts from the Promotion of Renewable Energy Technologies: The German Experience. Energy Policy 38: 4048-4056.    

36. Calzada Alvarez G., Jara R.M., Julian J.R.R., Bielsa J.I.G. (2009) Study of the effects on employment of public aid to renewable energy sources, Spain, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos.

37. Capros P., Mantzos L., Parousos L., Tasios N., Klaassen G.,Van Ierland T. (2011) Analysis of the EU policy package on climate change and renewables, Energy Policy 39: 1476-1485.

38. Timilsina G.R, Kurdgelashvili L, and Narbel P.A. (2012) Solar energy: Markets, economics and policies. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 16: 449- 465.    

39. Pablo-Romero M.P., Sanchez-Braza A., Perez M. (2013) Incentives to promote solar thermal energy in Spain. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 22:198-208.    

Copyright Info: © 2013, María del P. Pablo-Romero, licensee AIMS Press. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licese (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0)

Download full text in PDF

Export Citation

Article outline

Show full outline
Copyright © AIMS Press All Rights Reserved