Export file:


  • RIS(for EndNote,Reference Manager,ProCite)
  • BibTex
  • Text


  • Citation Only
  • Citation and Abstract


1. Information Retrieval and Knowledge Management Research Lab School of Information Technology, York University Toronto, ON M3J 1P3, Canada
2. Department of Information Technology Management, School of Business University at Albany/SUNY, Albany, NY 12222, USA

The global fair trade movement, to secure fair deal for producers, has been supported by the labeling initiative, which promotes sales of fair-trade products by expanding their distributions into major consumer segments through product-labeling. Fair-trade certifications, practised in compliance with the fair trade standards set by Fairtrade International (FLO), are carried out at the producer end of the supply chain. Given the varieties of products and producers, however, these certification activities are subject to ambiguous or inconsistent interpretation of the FLO standards. In this paper, we propose an ontological representation of the standards called CertOnto. We aim at defining eventually a set of ontological vocabularies for describing the concepts of actors and their roles, the compliance criteria, producers, products, activities, context and situations, all of which are involved into a basic decision problem for CertOnto: Given a producer, or a product, should it be fairtrade-certified or not? With regard to this problem, we emphasize the difficulties of verifying the accuracy of information captured by CertOnto-FLO, and show that, from technical perspective, computingwith CertOnto-FLO in general is challenging (at least NP-hard).
  Article Metrics


[1] F. Baader and W. Nutt, The Description Logic Handbook, Cambridge University Press, New York, NY, USA, 2003, chapter Basic Description Logics, 43-95, URL http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=885746.885749.

[2] D. Berardi, D. Calvanese and G. D. Giacomo, Reasoning on UML Class Diagrams, Artificial Intelligence, 168 (2005), 70-118, URL http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0004370205000792.

[3] H. Chen, T. Finin and A. Joshi, An ontology for context-aware pervasive computing environments, Knowl. Eng. Rev., 18 (2003), 197-207.

[4] B. Curtis, M. I. Kellner and J. Over, Process modeling, Communications of ACM, 35 (1992), 75-90.

[5] FLO-CERT, Quality manual explanatory document, 2015, URL https://www.flocert.net/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/QualityManual_en.pdf.

[6] FLO-CERT, Application for fairtrade certification: Standard operating procedure, 2016, URL https://www.flocert.net/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/Application-Fairtrade-Certification_SOP-en.pdf.

[7] FLO-CERT, Certification standard operating procedure, 2017, URL https://www.flocert.net/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/Certification_SOP_en-4.pdf.

[8] FLO-CERT, Fair trade glossary, 2017, URL https://www.flocert.net/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/Certification_SOP_en-4.pdf.

[9] M. R. Garey and D. S. Johnson, Computers and Intractability; A Guide to the Theory of NP-Completeness, W. H. Freeman & Co., New York, NY, USA, 1979.

[10] Y. Gu, Advanced Reasoning about Dynamical Systems, PhD thesis, University of Toronto, 2010. URL https://tspace.library.utoronto.ca/bitstream/1807/26274/3/Gu_Yilan_201011_PhD_thesis.pdf.

[11] Y. Gu and M. Soutchanski, Decidable reasoning in a modified situation calculus, in IJCAI 2007, Proceedings of the 20th International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Hyderabad, India, January 6-12, 2007, 2007, 1891-1897, URL http://ijcai.org/Proceedings/07/Papers/305.pdf.

[12] Y. Gu and M. Soutchanski, Reasoning about large taxonomies of actions, in Proceedings of the Twenty-Third AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence, AAAI 2008, Chicago, Illinois, USA, July 13-17, 2008, 2008, 931-937, URL http://www.aaai.org/Library/AAAI/2008/aaai08-148.php.

[13] J. Huang, Knowledge provenance: An approach to modeling and maintaining the evolution and validity of knowledge, PhD thesis, University of Toronto, 2008. URL https://tspace. library.utoronto.ca/bitstream/1807/11112/1/Huang_Jingwei_PhD_Thesis.2007-12.pdf.

[14] E. Kornyshova and R. Deneckère, Decision-making ontology for information system engineering, in International Conference on Conceptual Modeling, Springer, 2010, 104-117.

[15] M. Koubarakis and D. Plexousakis, A formal framework for business process modelling and design, Information Systems, 27 (2002), 299-319, URL http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0306437901000552.

[16] Y. Liu, X. Huang, A. An and X. Yu, ARSA: a sentiment-aware model for predicting sales performance using blogs, in SIGIR 2007: Proceedings of the 30th Annual International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, July 23-27, 2007, 2007, 607-614.

[17] Y. Liu, X. Huang, A. An and X. Yu, Modeling and predicting the helpfulness of online reviews, in Proceedings of the 8th IEEE International Conference on Data Mining (ICDM 2008), December 15-19, 2008, Pisa, Italy, 2008, 443-452, URL https://doi.org/10.1109/ICDM.2008.94.

[18] J. Mccarthy and P. J. Hayes, Some philosophical problems from the standpoint of artificial intelligence, Readings in Artificial Intelligence, 1981, 431-450.

[19] R. Reiter, Knowledge in Action: Logical Foundations for Specifying and Implementing Dynamical Systems, MIT Press, 2001.

[20] S. Sanner and S. McIlraith, An ordered theory resolution calculus for hybrid reasoning in first-order extensions of description logic, in Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Principles of Knowledge Representation and Reasoning (KR-06), 2006. URL http://www.aaai.org/Papers/KR/2006/KR06-013.pdf.

[21] D. Sayogo, H. Jarman, A. Whitmore, G. Tayi, J. Zhang, J. Hrdinova, T. Pardo, D. F. Andersen, X. Tan and D. L. Andersen, A Stakeholder Analysis of Interoperable Data Architecture: The Case of I-Choose, in Proceedings of the 13th Annual International Conference on Digital Government Research (dg.o '12), 2012.

[22] X. Tan, SCOPE: A Situation Calculus Ontology of Petri Nets, in 6th International Conference of Formal Ontology in Information Systems, Toronto, Canada, 2010, 227-240.

[23] X. Tan, The Application of Ontologies to Reasoning with Process Modeling Formalisms, PhD thesis, University of Toronto, 2012. URL https://tspace.library.utoronto.ca/bitstream/1807/32823/1/Tan_Xing_201206_PhD_thesis.pdf.

[24] X. Tan, Go beyond the SCOPE: A temporal situation calculus-based software tool for time petri nets, in 25th International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Other Applications of Applied Intelligent Systems, Dalian, China, 2012, 134-143.

[25] X. Tan, Towards a Formal Representation of Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Treatment of Comorbid Patients, in Seventh IEEE International Conference on Bioinformatics and Biomedicine, Shanghai, China, December 18-21, 2013, 2013, 578-583.

[26] X. Tan and M. Gruninger, Towards Axiomatizing the Semantics of UML Activity Diagrams: A Situation-Calculus Perspective, in 2010 IEEE/WIC/ACM International Conference on Web Intelligence, WI 2010, Toronto, Canada, 2010, 324-327.

[27] X. Tan, Y. Gu and J. X. Huang, An ontological account of ow-control components in BPMN process models, Big Data and Information Analytics, 2 (2017), 177.

[28] X. Tan and G. K. Tayi, An ontological and hierarchical approach for supply chain event aggregation, in Ninth IEEE International Conference on Semantic Computing, Anaheim, California, USA, 2015, 69-72.

[29] M. Uschold and M. Gruninger, Ontologies: Principles, methods and applications, Knowledge Eng. Review, 11 (1996), 93-136.

[30] X. Yu, Y. Liu, X. Huang and A. An, Mining online reviews for predicting sales performance: A case study in the movie domain, IEEE Trans. Knowl. Data Eng., 24 (2012), 720-734.

[31] M. F. Zarandi, Representing and Reasoning about Skills and Competencies over Time, PhD thesis, University of Toronto, 2013. URL https://tspace.library.utoronto.ca/bitstream/1807/43557/1/Fazel-Zarandi_Maryam_201311_PhD_Thesis.pdf.

Copyright Info: © 2017, Xing Tan, et al., licensee AIMS Press. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licese (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0)

Download full text in PDF

Export Citation

Article outline

Show full outline
Copyright © AIMS Press All Rights Reserved