Export file:


  • RIS(for EndNote,Reference Manager,ProCite)
  • BibTex
  • Text


  • Citation Only
  • Citation and Abstract

Pasta experience: Eating with the five senses—a pilot study

1 Department of Agricultural, Food and Forest Sciences, University of Palermo, Italy
2 ESCP Europe, Paris, France
3 Department of Economics, Business and Statistics, University of Palermo, Italy

Special Editions: Consumer sensory perception and quality of food: trends in sensory branding

Dried pasta is the Italian food “par excellence”. Traditional foods have characteristics that can stimulate or evoke in the consumer sensorial stimuli and experiences, especially when these foods are consumed in a typical-traditional restaurant. Traditional restaurants can use sensory marketing as a promotional advantage, creating a unique and original atmosphere that can represent their main way of differentiation. The aims of this paper are to know consumer liking with regard to two high quality types of Sicilian pasta, common dried pasta, and whole-wheat pasta, consumed in three different venues of a typical-traditional Italian franchised restaurant, and to measure the influence of environmental factors of the venues on consumers’ acceptance. Results showed that consumers are able recognize when the atmosphere of a restaurant is integrated and consistent with the food on offer and they appreciate more the contexts wherein they find this coherence. Moreover, the high degree of quality of the two types of pasta tasted was recognized by consumers that appreciated its gustative equilibrium, confirming that the gustatory sensations are not affected by the context in which a food is consumed. Finally, the study highlighted the importance of Olfactory marketing to influence the evaluation of the customer on restaurant’s atmospherics.
  Article Metrics


1. Landry M, Lemieux S, Lapointe A et al. (2018) Is eating pleasure compatible with healthy eating? A qualitative study on Quebecers' perceptions. Appetite 125: 537–547.

2. Marty L, Chambaron S, Nicklaus S, et al. (2018) Learned pleasure from eating: An opportunity to promote healthy eating in children? Appetite 120: 265–274.    

3. Berridge KC, Ho CY, Richard JM, et al. (2010) The tempted brain eats: Pleasure and desire circuits in obesity and eating disorders. Brain Res 1350: 43–46.    

4. Asioli D, Wongprawns R, Pignatti E, et al. (2018) Can information affect sensory perceptions? Evidence from a survey on Italian organic food consumers. AIMS Agric Food 3: 327–344.

5. Bryant C, Barnett J (2018) Consumer acceptance of cultured meat: A systematic review. Meat Sci 143: 8–17.    

6. Grunert KG, Sonntag WI, Glanz-Chanos V, et al. (2018) Consumer interest in environmental impact, safety, health and animal welfare aspects of modern pig production: Results of a cross-national choice experiment. Meat Sci 137: 123–129.    

7. Kumpulainen T, Vainio A, Sandell M, et al. (2018) How young people in Finland respond to information about the origin of food products: The role of value orientations and product type. Food Qual Prefer 68: 173–182.    

8. Santeramo FG, Carlucci D, De Devitiis B, et al. (2018) Emerging trends in European food, diets and food industry. Food Res Int 104: 39–47.    

9. Tey YS, Arsil P, Brindal M, et al. (2018) Personal values underlying ethnic food choice: Means-end evidence for Japanese food. J Ethnic Foods 5: 33–39.    

10. Miceli A, Francesca N, Moschetti G, et al. (2015) The influence of addition of Borago officinalis with antibacterial activity on the sensory quality of fresh pasta. Int J Gastronomy Food Sci 2: 93–97.    

11. Boroski M, de Aguiar AC, Boeing JS, et al. (2011) Enhancement of pasta antioxidant activity with oregano and carrot leaf. Food Chem 125: 696–700.    

12. Martini D, Ciccoritti R, Nicoletti I, et al. (2018) From seed to cooked pasta: Influence of traditional and non-conventional transformation processes on total antioxidant capacity and phenolic acid content. Int J Food Sci Nutr 69: 24–32.    

13. AGRI-MARCHE Regione Marche Agricoltura, Italy. Aree Tematiche. Available from: http://www.agri.marche.it/Aree%20tematiche/ricerca%20e%20sperimentazione/pasta%20alimentare/Documentazione%20finale/Risultati%20finali.pdf. (Italian language).

14. International Pasta Organization (IPO) (2016) Available from: http://www.internationalpasta.org/index.aspx?id=3.

15. Associazione delle Industrie del Dolce e della Pasta Italiane (AIDEPI) (2017) L'industria italiana del dolce e della pasta: Andamento economico 2016. AIDEPI Roma. Available from: http://www.aidepi.it/associazione/pubblicazioni/115-andamento-economico-2016.html. (Italian language).

16. Cox R, Skouteris H, Fuller-Tyszkiewicz M, et al. (2018) A qualitative exploration of coordinators' and carers' perceptions of the Healthy Eating, Active Living (HEAL) programme in residential care. Child Abuse Rev 27: 122–136.

17. Belton B, Bush SR, Little DC (2017) Not just for the wealthy: Rethinking farmed fish consumption in the Global South. Global Food Secur 16: 85–92.

18. Desiere S, Hung Y, Verbeke W, et al. (2018) Assessing current and future meat and fish consumption in Sub-Sahara Africa: Learnings from FAO Food Balance Sheets and LSMS household survey data. Global Food Secur 16: 116–126.    

19. Schreinemachers P, Simmons EB, Wopereis MC (2017) Tapping the economic and nutritional power of vegetables. Global Food Secur 16: 36–45.

20. Guillaume D (2011) The Mediterranean diet: A cultural journey. The Lancet 378: 766–767.    

21. Altamore L, Bacarella S, Columba P, et al. (2017) The Italian Consumers' Preferences for Pasta: Does Environment Matter? Chem Eng Trans 58: 859–864.

22. UNESCO (2018) Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity, Mediterranean Diet. Available from: https://ich.unesco.org/en/RL/mediterranean-diet-00884.

23. Bacarella S, Altamore L, Valdesi V, et al. (2015) Importance of food labeling as a means of information and traceability according to consumers. Adv Hortic Sci 29: 145–151.

24. Boukid F, Folloni S, Sforza S, et al. (2018) Current Trends in Ancient Grains Based Foodstuffs: Insights into Nutritional Aspects and Technological Applications. Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf 17: 123–136.    

25. Dinu M, Whittaker A, Pagliai G, et al. (2018) Ancient wheat species and human health: Biochemical and clinical implications. J Nutr Biochem 52: 1–9.    

26. Sortino G, Allegra A, Inglese P, et al. (2016) Influence of an evoked pleasant consumption context on consumers' hedonic evaluation for minimally processed cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) fruit. Acta Hortic 1141: 327–334.

27. Resmini P, Pagani MA (1983) Ultrastructure Studies of Pasta. A Review. Food Struct 2: 2.

28. Güler S, Köksel H, Ng PKW, et al. (2002) Effects of industrial pasta drying temperatures on starch properties and pasta quality. Food Res Int 35: 421–427.    

29. D'Egidio MG, Mariani BM, Nardi S, et al. (1990) Chemical and technological variables and their relationships: A predictive equation for pasta cooking quality. Cereal Chem 67: 275–281.

30. Feillet P, Dexter JE, (1996) Quality requirements of durum wheat for semolina milling and pasta production, In: JE. Kruger RR. Matsuo JW. Dick (Eds.), Pasta and noodle technology, St. Paul, MN, USA: AACC Inc, 95–123.

31. Bustos MC, Perez GT, León AE (2011) Sensory and nutritional attributes of fibre-enriched pasta. LWT-Food Sci Technol 44:1429–1434.    

32. Ares G, Varela P (2018) Methods in Consumer Research, Volume 1: New Approaches to Classic Methods. Woodhead Publishing, 1–582.

33. Kotler P (1973) Atmospherics as a marketing tool. J Retailing 49: 48–64.

34. Helmefalk M, Hultén B (2017) Multi-sensory congruent cues in designing retail store atmosphere: Effects on shoppers' emotions and purchase behavior. J Retailing Consum Serv 38: 1–11.    

35. Lee NY, Noble SM, Biswas D (2018) Hey big spender! A golden (color) atmospheric effect on tipping behavior. J Acad Mark Sci 46: 317–337.    

36. Vukadin A, Lemoine JF, Badot O (2016) Opportunities and risks of combining shopping experience and artistic elements in the same store: A contribution to the magical functions of the point of sale. J Mark Manage 32: 944–964.    

37. Vukadin A, Wongkitrungrueng A, Assarut N (2018) When art meets mall: Impact on shopper responses. J Prod Brand Manage 27: 277–293.    

38. Mehrabian A, Russell JA (1974) An approach to environmental psychology. MIT Press Cambridge MA. Behav Therap 7: 132–133.

39. Jang SS, Namkung Y (2009) Perceived quality, emotions, and behavioral intentions: Application of an extended Mehrabian-Russell model to restaurants. J Bus Res 62: 451–460.    

40. Foster J, McLelland MA (2015) Retail atmospherics: The impact of a brand dictated theme. J Retailing Consum Serv 22: 195–205.    

41. Hultén B (2011) Sensory marketing: The multi-sensory brand-experience concept. Eur Bus Rev 23: 256–273.    

42. Wiedmann KP, Labenz F, Haase J, et al. (2018) The power of experiential marketing: Exploring the causal relationships among multisensory marketing, brand experience, customer perceived value and brand strength. J Brand Manage 25: 101–118.    

43. EUROSTAT (2017) Available from: https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat.

44. Morgan DL (2018) Living within blurry boundaries: The value of distinguishing between qualitative and quantitative research. J Mixed Meth Res 12: 268–279.    

45. Nyumba TO, Wilson K, Derrick CJ, et al. (2018) The use of focus group discussion methodology: Insights from two decades of application in conservation. Meth Ecol Evol 9: 20–32.    

46. Chernev A (2018) Strategic marketing management (Ninth edition). Cerebellum Press Chicago IL.

47. Dolnicar S, Grün B, Leisch F, (2018) Market Segmentation Analysis, In: Market Segmentation Analysis, Springer, Singapore, 11–22.

48. Chironi S, Bacarella S, Altamore L, et al. (2017) Quality Factors Influencing Consumer Demand for Small Fruit by Focus Group and Sensory Test. J Food Prod Mark 23: 857–872.    

49. Stewart DW, Shamdasani PN (2014) Focus groups: Theory and practice (Vol. 20). Sage publications.

50. Kitzberger CSG, Scholz MBS, da Silva JBGD, et al. (2016) Free choice profiling sensory analysis to discriminate coffees. AIMS Agric Food 1: 455–469.    

51. Streicher MC, Estes Z (2016) Multisensory interaction in product choice: Grasping a product affects choice of other seen products. J Consum Psychol 26: 558–565.    

52. Chironi S, Bacarella S, Altamore L, et al. (2017) Study of product repositioning for the Marsala Vergine DOC wine. Int J Entrepreneurship Small Bus 32: 118–138.    

53. Ingrassia M, Chironi S, Allegra A, et al. (2017) Consumer preferences for fig fruit (Ficus carica L.) quality attributes and postharvest storage at low temperature by in-store survey and focus group. Acta Hortic 1173: 383–388.

54. Ingrassia M, Bacarella S, Altamore L, et al. (2018) Consumer acceptance and primary drivers of liking for small fruits. Acta Hortic 1194: 1147–1154.

55. Thielecke F, Nugent A (2018) Contaminants in Grain-A Major Risk for Whole Grain Safety? Nutrients 10: 1213.    

56. Ennouari A, Sanchis V, Rahouti M, et al. (2018) Isolation and molecular identification of mycotoxin producing fungi in durum wheat from Morocco. J Mater Environ Sci 9: 1470–1479.

57. Bräuer J, Plösch R, Saft M, et al. (2018) Measuring object-oriented design principles: The results of focus group-based research. J Syst Software 140: 74–90.    

58. Chironi S, Sortino G, Allegra A, et al. (2017) Consumer assessment on sensory attributes of fresh table grapes cv "Italia" and "Red Globe" after long cold storage treatment. Chem Eng Trans 58: 421–426.

59. Ertl K, Goessler W (2018) Grains, whole flour, white flour, and some final goods: an elemental comparison. Eur Food Res Technol 244: 2065–2075.    

60. Piqueras-Fiszman B, Spence C (2012) The influence of the feel of product packaging on the perception of the oral-somatosensory texture of food. Food Qual Prefer 26: 67–73.    

61. Erenkol AD, Merve AK (2015) Sensory Marketing. J Administrative Sci Policy Stud 3: 1–26.

62. Madzharov AV, Block LG, Morrin M (2015) The cool scent of power: Effects of ambient scent on consumer preferences and choice behavior. J Mark 79: 83–96.    

63. Ingrassia M, Bacarella S, Columba P, et al. (2017) Traceability and Labelling of Food Products from the Consumer Perspective. Chem Eng Trans 58: 865–870.

64. Caputo V, Sacchi G, Lagoudakis A, (2018) Traditional Food Products and Consumer Choices: A Review, In: Case Studies in the Traditional Food Sector, 47–87.

65. Bava L, Bacenetti J, Gislon G, et al. (2018) Impact assessment of traditional food manufacturing: The case of Grana Padano cheese. Sci Total Environ 626: 1200–1209.    

66. Cei L, Defrancesco E, Stefani G (2018) From Geographical Indications to Rural Development: A Review of the Economic Effects of European Union Policy. Sustainability 10: 1–21.    

67. Eataly Net S.r.l (2018) Available from: https://www.eataly.com/.

© 2018 the Author(s), licensee AIMS Press. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licese (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0)

Download full text in PDF

Export Citation

Article outline

Show full outline
Copyright © AIMS Press All Rights Reserved