Export file:

Format

  • RIS(for EndNote,Reference Manager,ProCite)
  • BibTex
  • Text

Content

  • Citation Only
  • Citation and Abstract

Design and feasibility analysis of a low-cost water treatment plant for rural regions of Bangladesh

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Rajshahi University of Engineering & Technology, Rajshahi-6204, Bangladesh

In this paper, a decentralized low-cost water treatment plant is designed using empirical equations. From the analysis of water quality of Bangladesh, it is seen that the standard level of water quality is not maintained in Bangladesh. First, the primary treatment plant is designed including septic tank and anaerobic pond design. But only primary plant is not enough for the removal of impurities, for this reason secondary treatment plant is designed considering facultative pond, wetland and sand filter. Wetland and facultative pond can remove almost 70% of N and 55–60% of P. The designed plant has an efficiency of 65% in both N and P removal and the effluent amount will be 8.1 mg/L and 1.5 mg/L respectively. The other parameters like arsenic and BOD are also discussed in this paper. Finally, a detailed feasibility analysis of the plant is discussed including environmental impact, technical analysis and installation and running cost. The installation cost of the plant is around 650–700 dollar, whereas a conventional water treatment plant of the same capacity costs 2000–3000 dollar approximately. The designed plant is very much compatible for a big family or two–three small families. Finally, some recommendations are provided which may be considered as future research work.
  Figure/Table
  Supplementary
  Article Metrics

Keywords water treatment; waste water; low cost treatment plant; clean water; Bangladesh

Citation: Avijit Mallik, Md. Arman Arefin, Mhia Md. Zaglul Shahadat. Design and feasibility analysis of a low-cost water treatment plant for rural regions of Bangladesh. AIMS Agriculture and Food, 2018, 3(3): 181-204. doi: 10.3934/agrfood.2018.3.181

References

  • 1. Dular M, Griessler-Bulc T, Gutierrez-Aguirre I, et al. (2016) Use of hydrodynamic cavitation in (waste) water treatment. Ultrason Sonochem 29: 577–588.    
  • 2. Smit J, Nasr J (1992) Urban agriculture for sustainable cities: Using wastes and idle land and water bodies as resources. Environ Urbanization 4: 141–152.    
  • 3. Knappett PS, Mckay LD, Layton A, et al. (2012) Unsealed tubewells lead to increased fecal contamination of drinking water. J Water Health 10: 565–578.    
  • 4. Shamsudduha M, Taylor RG, Ahmed KM, et al. (2011) The impact of intensive groundwater abstraction on recharge to a shallow regional aquifer system: Evidence from Bangladesh. Hydrogeol J 19: 901–916.    
  • 5. Panepinto D, Fiore S, Zappone M, et al. (2016) Evaluation of the energy efficiency of a large wastewater treatment plant in Italy. Appl Energy 161: 404–411.    
  • 6. Mehrabadi A, Craggs R, Farid MM (2015) Wastewater treatment high rate algal ponds (WWT HRAP) for low-cost biofuel production. Bioresour Technol 184: 202–214.    
  • 7. Chen G (2004) Electrochemical technologies in wastewater treatment. Sep Purif Technol 38: 11–41.    
  • 8. Crini G (2005) Recent developments in polysaccharide-based materials used as adsorbents in wastewater treatment. Prog Polym Sci 30: 38–70.    
  • 9. Pandey BK, Mishra V, Agrawal S (2011) Production of bio-electricity during wastewater treatment using a single chamber microbial fuel cell. Int J Eng Sci Technol, 3.
  • 10. Le-Clech P, Chen V, Fane TA (2006) Fouling in membrane bioreactors used in wastewater treatment. J Membr Sci 284: 17–53.    
  • 11. Kampschreur MJ, Temmink H, Kleerebezem R, et al. (2009) Nitrous oxide emission during wastewater treatment. Water Res 43: 4093–4103.    
  • 12. Singh HM, Pathak AK, Chopra K, et al. (2018) Microbial fuel cells: A sustainable solution for bioelectricity generation and wastewater treatment. Biofuels 2018: 1–21.
  • 13. Fu F, Dionysiou DD, Liu H (2014) The use of zero-valent iron for groundwater remediation and wastewater treatment: A review. J Hazard Mater 267: 194–205.    
  • 14. Yuan J, Dong W, Sun F, et al. (2016) An ecological vegetation-activated sludge process (V-ASP) for decentralized wastewater treatment: System development, treatment performance, and mathematical modeling. Environ Sci Pollut Res 23: 10234–10246.    
  • 15. Seto EY, Konnan J, Olivieri AW, et al. (2016) A quantitative microbial risk assessment of wastewater treatment plant blending: Case study in San Francisco Bay. Environ Sci Water Res Technol 2: 134–145.    
  • 16. Sharmin A (2016) Water and wastewater in Bangladesh, current status and design of a decentralized solution. Master Thesis, Dept. of Chemical Eng., University of Lund, Sweden. Available from: http://lup.lub.lu.se/student-papers/record/8895656/file/8895752.pdf.
  • 17. Mallik A, Arefin MA (2018) Clean Water: Design of an efficient and feasible water treatment plant for rural South-Bengal. J Mech Eng Res Dev 41: 156–167.
  • 18. Bangladesh National Drinking Water Quality Survey (UNICEF). Available from: https://www.unicef.org/bangladesh/BNDWQS_2009_web.pdf.
  • 19. Public Works Dept, Govt of Bangladesh: Water Quality Parameters Bangladesh Standards & WHO Guide Lines, 2017. Available from: http://dphe.gov.bd/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=125&Itemid=1.
  • 20. Dhaka Water Supply and Sanitation Project (World Bank). Available from: http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/319831484319690176/ICR-Main-Document-P093988-2016-12-21-19-34-01102017.docx.
  • 21. Rahman MS, Giessen L (2017) The power of public bureaucracies: Forest-related climate change policies in Bangladesh (1992–2014). Clim Policy 17: 915–935.    
  • 22. Hossain MM, Momin MA, Rowe AL, et al. (2017) Corporate social and environmental reporting practices: A case of listed companies in Bangladesh. Sustainability Accounting Manage Policy J 8: 138–165.    
  • 23. Sharma M (2017) The Dhaka Water Services Turnaround. Available from: https://www.adb.org/sites/default/files/publication/384631/dhaka-water-services.pdf.
  • 24. Farok GG (2017) Non-Revenue Water (NRW) is a challenge for Global Water Supply System Management: A case study of Dhaka Water Supply System Management. J Mech Eng 46: 28–35.
  • 25. Johnston RB, (2009) Death by heat: The Chulli treatment system, In: Water, sanitation and hygiene: Sustainable development and multisectoral approaches. Proceedings of the 34th WEDC International Conference, United Nations Conference Centre, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 18–22, May 2009 (pp. 360–363). Water, Engineering and Development Centre (WEDC) Loughborough University of Technology.
  • 26. Iribarnegaray MA, Rodriguez-Alvarez MS, Moraña LB, et al. (2018) Management challenges for a more decentralized treatment and reuse of domestic wastewater in metropolitan areas. J Water Sanit Hyg Dev 8: 113–122.    
  • 27. Climate report and data. Available from: https://en.climate-data.org/location/3943.
  • 28. Mirza MMQ, Hofer B (2007) Floods in Bangladesh: History, dynamics and rethinking the role of the Himalayas. Environ Conserv 34: 348.
  • 29. Population census Bangladesh, 2016. Available from: http://203.112.218.65:8008/WebTestApplication/userfiles/Image/PopCenZilz2011/Zila-Khulna.pdf.
  • 30. Climate change and natural disaster report (Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics). Available from: http://203.112.218.65:8008/WebTestApplication/userfiles/Image/National%20Account%20Wing/Disaster_Climate/Disaster_Climate_Statistics%2015.pdf.
  • 31. Rahman MM, Hasan MM, Nakajima J (2015) Categories and Water Quality of Artificial Water Storage Ponds in Rural Areas of Khulna, Bangladesh. J Water Environ Technol 13: 411–426.    
  • 32. Al-Amin M, Mahmud K, Hosen S, et al. (2011) Domestic water consumption patterns in a village in Bangladesh, In: 4th Annual Paper Meet and 1st Civil Engineering Congress, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
  • 33. Nikpay M, Krebs P, Ellis B (2017) A Review of Surfactant Role in Soil Clogging Processes at Wastewater Exfiltration Locations in Sewers. Water Environ Res 89: 714–723.    
  • 34. Temesgen T, Bui TT, Han M, et al. (2017) Micro and nanobubble technologies as a new horizon for water-treatment techniques: A review. Adv Colloid Interface Sci 246: 40–51.    
  • 35. Von Sperling M, de Lemos Chernicharo CA (2017) Biological wastewater treatment in warm climate regions. IWA publishing, 857.
  • 36. Kadlec RH, Knight R, Vymazal J, et al. (2017) Constructed wetlands for pollution control. IWA publishing.
  • 37. Metcalfe CD, Nagabhatla N, Fitzgerald SK, (2018) Multifunctional Wetlands: Pollution Abatement by Natural and Constructed Wetlands, In: Multifunctional Wetlands, Springer, Cham, 1–14.
  • 38. Arashiro LT, Montero N, Ferrer I, et al. (2018) Life cycle assessment of high rate algal ponds for wastewater treatment and resource recovery. Sci Total Environ 622: 1118–1130.
  • 39. Rajib MA, Rahman MM, Mcbean EA, (2010) Validation of Observed Evaporation-Temperature Trend Models with GCM Projections for Bangladesh, In: Proceedings of the 5th International Water Association Young Water Professionals Conference (Vol. 5, No. 7).
  • 40. Arefin MA, Mallik A (2017) Sources and causes of water pollution in Bangladesh: A technical overview. Bibechana 15: 97–112.    
  • 41. Sells MD, Brown N, Shilton AN (2018) Determining variables that influence the phosphorus content of waste stabilization pond algae. Water Res 132: 301–308.    
  • 42. Norström A (2005) Treatment of domestic wastewater using microbiological processes and hydroponics in Sweden. Microbiology.
  • 43. Feasibility report on rural water supply in Bangladesh, PHED, Govt. of Bangladesh.
  • 44. Li J (2010) Application of Decentralized Wastewater Treatment in Small towns and Villages of China. Master Thesis, Dept. of Energy and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, Goteborg, Sweden. Available from: http://publications.lib.chalmers.se/records/fulltext/136365.pdf.
  • 45. Liu D, Ge Y, Chang J, et al. (2009) Constructed wetlands in China: Recent developments and future challenges. Front Ecol Environ 7: 261–268.    
  • 46. Yang F, Yang M, Xu J (2018) The Productivity Dynamics of China's Environmentally Friendly Production Technologies in terms of Wastewater Treatment Techniques. BioMed Res Int 2018: 1–10.
  • 47. Smith K, Liu S, Liu Y, et al. (2018) Can China reduce energy for water? A review of energy for urban water supply and wastewater treatment and suggestions for change. Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev 91: 41–58.
  • 48. Furlong C, Silva SD, Gan K, et al. (2017) Risk management, financial evaluation and funding for wastewater and stormwater reuse projects. J Environ Manage 191: 83–95.    
  • 49. Oladoja NA (2017) Appropriate technology for domestic wastewater management in under-resourced regions of the world. Appl Water Sci 7: 3391–3406.    
  • 50. Jung YT, Narayanan NC, Cheng YL (2018) Cost comparison of centralized and decentralized wastewater management systems using optimization model. J Environ Manage 213: 90–97.    
  • 51. Gottinger HW (2018) Economic models and applications of solid waste management. Routledge.
  • 52. Yuan J, Dong W, Sun F, et al. (2018) Low temperature effects on nitrification and nitrifier community structure in V-ASP for decentralized wastewater treatment and its improvement by bio-augmentation. Environ Sci Pollut Res 25: 6584–6595.    

 

Reader Comments

your name: *   your email: *  

© 2018 the Author(s), licensee AIMS Press. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licese (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0)

Download full text in PDF

Export Citation

Copyright © AIMS Press All Rights Reserved