Review

An overview of the prominence of current diagnostic methods for diagnosis of COVID-19

  • Received: 21 July 2020 Accepted: 09 September 2020 Published: 11 September 2020
  • Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused a fatal pandemic worldwide. This review aims to discuss laboratory, molecular, and serological methods and their advantages and disadvantages over each other in COVID-19 diagnosis. Moreover, computed tomography (CT) scan, that is used on suspicion of COVID-19 pneumonia and for determining the severity and progression of the disease, is also discussed. Different CT features categorize the patients into low to high-risk groups. Here, we described three kinds of CT classification based on CT patterns within different time courses of the disease. Chest CT imaging should be considered for screening, evaluating, and following up COVID-19 due to its high sensitivity. Approximately, shortly after the onset of symptoms, viral load can be diagnosed by real-time PCR technique through bronchoalveolar lavage, nasopharyngeal and/or oropharyngeal swab sampling. Proper sampling may delineate the result of this test. Although RT-PCR assay is currently considered the gold standard test, false-negative results should be considered. Furthermore, a positive test may indicate the infection with SARS-CoV-2, but not necessarily the disease, and the person may be a carrier or other organs may be involved other than the lungs. In contrast to CT imaging, RT-PCR assay has poor sensitivity, but it helps the decision-making on hospitalization and isolation. The emergence of reliable serological tests has promoted the diagnosis, treatment process, chronic or carrier status of an individual, and epidemiological studies. In addition, an earlier and more accurate diagnosis will be provided for asymptomatic or susceptible individuals.

    Citation: Muhammad Sadeqi Nezhad, Farhad Seif, Ilad Alavi Darazam, Azam Samei, Monireh Kamali, Hossein Aazami, Monireh Mohsenzadegan, Yaghoub Mollaei-Kandelousi, Pegah Babaheidarian, Majid Khoshmirsafa, Mohsen Fateh. An overview of the prominence of current diagnostic methods for diagnosis of COVID-19[J]. AIMS Allergy and Immunology, 2020, 4(3): 60-74. doi: 10.3934/Allergy.2020006

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  • Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused a fatal pandemic worldwide. This review aims to discuss laboratory, molecular, and serological methods and their advantages and disadvantages over each other in COVID-19 diagnosis. Moreover, computed tomography (CT) scan, that is used on suspicion of COVID-19 pneumonia and for determining the severity and progression of the disease, is also discussed. Different CT features categorize the patients into low to high-risk groups. Here, we described three kinds of CT classification based on CT patterns within different time courses of the disease. Chest CT imaging should be considered for screening, evaluating, and following up COVID-19 due to its high sensitivity. Approximately, shortly after the onset of symptoms, viral load can be diagnosed by real-time PCR technique through bronchoalveolar lavage, nasopharyngeal and/or oropharyngeal swab sampling. Proper sampling may delineate the result of this test. Although RT-PCR assay is currently considered the gold standard test, false-negative results should be considered. Furthermore, a positive test may indicate the infection with SARS-CoV-2, but not necessarily the disease, and the person may be a carrier or other organs may be involved other than the lungs. In contrast to CT imaging, RT-PCR assay has poor sensitivity, but it helps the decision-making on hospitalization and isolation. The emergence of reliable serological tests has promoted the diagnosis, treatment process, chronic or carrier status of an individual, and epidemiological studies. In addition, an earlier and more accurate diagnosis will be provided for asymptomatic or susceptible individuals.


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    Conflict of interests



    All authors declare no conflicts of interest in this paper.

    Author contributions



    Muhammad Sadeqi Nezhad and Farhad Seif designed the study and drafted the manuscript. Hossein Aazami was involved in search and data collection. Monireh Kamali and Ilad Alavi Darazam provided and interpreted CT scan data. Azam Samei, Pegah Babaheidarian, and Monireh Mohsenzadegan provided and interpreted laboratory data. Majid Khoshmirsafa and Yaghoub Mollaei Kandelousi provided and interpreted serological data. Majid Khoshmirsafa and Mohsen Fateh supervised the study. Farhad Seif revised the manuscript for important intellectual contents. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

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